Volume 512 Number 7515



People power p.347

Climate models must consider how humans are responding to a warming world.

doi: 10.1038/512347b


Diplomatic service p.347

Government science advisers are unlikely to be specialists on the subject of a crisis, but they are key to bringing together relevant experts and disseminating the information clearly and accurately.

doi: 10.1038/512347a



World struggles to stop Ebola p.355

Greater international assistance is needed to quell the epidemic, say health officials.

doi: 10.1038/512355a


Brazil considers transgenic trees p.357

Genetically modified eucalyptus could be a global test case.

doi: 10.1038/512357a


Ecotourism rise hits whales p.358

Desire to observe whales and dolphins up close is affecting animals’ behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/512358a


Himalayan plants seek cooler climes p.359

Race is on to record mountain biodiversity before it is lost.

doi: 10.1038/512359a

News Features


Scientific advice: Crisis counsellors p.360


doi: 10.1038/512360a

News & Views


Genomics: Hiding in plain sight p.374

ENCODE(Encyclopedia of DNA Elements)およびmodENCODE(Model Organism ENCODE)研究コンソーシアムからの最新の報告は、線虫、ショウジョウバエとヒトのゲノム中にある機能エレメントのデータセットの数を2倍以上にするものだ。

doi: 10.1038/512374a


Astrophysics: Supernova seen through γ-ray eyes p.375


doi: 10.1038/512375a


Immunology: Mammalian watchdog targets bacteria p.377


doi: 10.1038/nature13741


Neutrino physics: What makes the Sun shine p.378


doi: 10.1038/512378a


Applied physics: Hybrid sensors ring the changes p.380


doi: 10.1038/512380a


Behavioural ecology: Love thy neighbour p.381


doi: 10.1038/512381a



Neutrinos from the primary proton–proton fusion process in the Sun p.383

Spectral observations of the low-energy neutrinos produced by proton–proton fusion in the Sun demonstrate that about 99 per cent of the Sun’s power is generated by this process.

doi: 10.1038/nature13702


AhR sensing of bacterial pigments regulates antibacterial defence p.387

The mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (known to sense environmental pollutants) is shown to also have a role as a pattern recognition receptor in sensing bacterial virulence factors, resulting in an antibacterial response and activation of innate and natural defences.

doi: 10.1038/nature13684


Diversity and dynamics of the Drosophila transcriptome OPEN p.393

A large-scale transcriptome analysis in Drosophila melanogaster, across tissues, cell types and conditions, provides insights into global patterns and diversity of transcription initiation, splicing, polyadenylation and non-coding RNA expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature12962

ゲノミクス:C. elegansゲノムの時空間的分解能での調節解析

Regulatory analysis of the C. elegans genome with spatiotemporal resolution OPEN p.400

Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing across multiple stages of Caenorhabditis elegant development reveals the genomic distribution of binding sites for 92 transcription factors and regulatory proteins, and integration of these and cellular-resolution expression data produce a spatiotemporally resolved metazoan transcription factor binding map allowing exploration into the properties of developmental regulatory circuits.

doi: 10.1038/nature13497



Cobalt-56 γ-ray emission lines from the type Ia supernova 2014J p.406

The detection of 56Co γ-ray emission from the supernova 2014J proves that type Ia supernovae result from a thermonuclear explosion of a carbon–oxygen white dwarf or of a pair of merging white dwarfs.

doi: 10.1038/nature13672


Quantum imaging with undetected photons p.409

A new quantum imaging experiment demonstrates images made with light that does not encounter the object; one of a pair of photons created at two crystals illuminates the object but is never detected, and the other photon, which is in a joint quantum state with the first and does not interact with the object, forms an image of the object on a camera.

doi: 10.1038/nature13586


Carbon–carbon bond cleavage and rearrangement of benzene by a trinuclear titanium hydride p.413

A trinuclear titanium polyhydride complex can be used to cleave carbon–carbon bonds in benzene and transform the benzene ring, suggesting that multinuclear titanium hydrides could be used to activate aromatic molecules.

doi: 10.1038/nature13624


Contrasting responses of mean and extreme snowfall to climate change p.416

In many regions, a warming climate may lead to large decreases in annual snowfall while having a much weaker effect on the intensities of the heaviest snowfall events — those that can be most disruptive to urban infrastructure.

doi: 10.1038/nature13625


A primitive fish from the Cambrian of North America p.419

Fossils of Metaspriggina, one of the earliest known and most primitive fishes, are described, with the structure of the gills shown to presage that of jawed vertebrates in many ways.

doi: 10.1038/nature13414


Neural constraints on learning p.423

During learning, the new patterns of neural population activity that develop are constrained by the existing network structure so that certain patterns can be generated more readily than others.

doi: 10.1038/nature13665


Processing properties of ON and OFF pathways for Drosophila motion detection p.427

Four medulla neurons implement two critical processing steps to incoming signals in Drosophila motion detection.

doi: 10.1038/nature13427


miR-34a blocks osteoporosis and bone metastasis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and Tgif2 p.431

A microRNA, miR-34a, is a novel and critical suppressor of osteoclastogenesis, bone resorption and the bone metastatic niche.

doi: 10.1038/nature13375


The long-term maintenance of a resistance polymorphism through diffuse interactions p.436

Long-term plant resistance polymorphism does not require obligate association but instead is maintained in the face of diffuse ecological interactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13439


The Get1/2 transmembrane complex is an endoplasmic-reticulum membrane protein insertase p.441

The receptor for the cytoplasmic factor that targets tail-anchored proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum is an enzyme that enables a facilitated insertion path into the lipid bilayer.

doi: 10.1038/nature13471


Comparative analysis of the transcriptome across distant species OPEN p.445

Uniform processing and detailed annotation of human, worm and fly RNA-sequencing data reveal ancient, conserved features of the transcriptome, shared co-expression modules (many enriched in developmental genes), matched expression patterns across development and similar extent of non-canonical, non-coding transcription; furthermore, the data are used to create a single, universal model to predict gene-expression levels for all three organisms from chromatin features at the promoter.

doi: 10.1038/nature13424


Comparative analysis of metazoan chromatin organization OPEN p.449

A large collection of new modENCODE and ENCODE genome-wide chromatin data sets from cell lines and developmental stages in worm, fly and human are analysed; this reveals many conserved features of chromatin organization among the three organisms, as well as notable differences in the composition and locations of repressive chromatin.

doi: 10.1038/nature13415


Comparative analysis of regulatory information and circuits across distant species OPEN p.453

A map of genome-wide binding locations of 165 human, 93 worm and 52 fly transcription-regulatory factors (almost 50% presented for the first time) from diverse cell types, developmental stages, or conditions reveals that gene-regulatory properties previously observed for individual factors may be general principles of metazoan regulation that are well preserved.

doi: 10.1038/nature13668

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