Volume 512 Number 7514



What goes up p.231

Federal restrictions on the use of drones by US researchers threaten an increasingly productive tool. The scientific community must speak out while there is a chance to change matters.

doi: 10.1038/512231a


Finding the root p.231

The NIH is right to investigate whether bias makes grant awards unfair.

doi: 10.1038/512231b



US drone research hits regulatory turbulence p.239

Federal rules ground scientists using remotely piloted aircraft at private universities.

doi: 10.1038/512239a


Double threat for Tibet p.240

Climate change and human development are jeopardizing the plateau’s fragile environment.

doi: 10.1038/512240a


Bone technique redrafts prehistory p.242

Carbon-dating improvements show that Neanderthals disappeared from Europe much earlier than thought.

doi: 10.1038/512242a


NIH to probe racial disparity in grant awards p.243

US agency will assess whether grant reviewers are biased against minority applicants.

doi: 10.1038/512243a

News Features


Lakes under the ice: Antarctica's secret garden p.244

南極の分厚い氷の下、800 mの所にある隠れた湖から採取された試料には、多数の微生物と、未知の広大な生態系の手がかりが含まれている。

doi: 10.1038/512244a

News & Views


Biogeochemistry: Microbes eat rock under ice p.256


doi: 10.1038/512256a


Developmental biology: It takes muscle to make blood cells p.257


doi: 10.1038/nature13740


Earth science: Warning signs of the Iquique earthquake p.258


doi: 10.1038/nature13655


Palaeoanthropology: The time of the last Neanderthals p.260


doi: 10.1038/512260a


Molecular physics: Complexity trapped by simplicity p.261


doi: 10.1038/512261a


Population history: Human melting pots in southeast Asia p.262


doi: 10.1038/512262a


分子生物学:CCR5 mRNAのリボソームフレームシフトはmiRNAとNMD経路によって調節される

Ribosomal frameshifting in the CCR5 mRNA is regulated by miRNAs and the NMD pathway p.265

Programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting (−1 PRF) is a process by which a signal in a messenger RNA causes a translating ribosome to shift by one nucleotide, thus changing the reading frame; here −1 PRF in the mRNA for the co-receptor for HIV-1, CCR5, is stimulated by two microRNAs and leads to degradation of the transcript by nonsense-mediated decay and at least one other decay pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature13429


Crystal structure of a human GABAA receptor p.270

GABAA receptors are the principal mediators of rapid inhibitor synaptic transmission in the brain, and a decline in GABAA signalling leads to diseases including epilepsy, insomnia, anxiety and autism; here, the first X-ray crystal structure of a human GABAA receptor, the human β3 homopentamer, reveals structural features unique for this receptor class and uncovers the locations of key disease-causing mutations.

doi: 10.1038/nature13293


X-ray structure of the mouse serotonin 5-HT3 receptor p.276

The first X-ray crystal structure of the mouse serotonin 5-HT3 receptor, a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel, is similar to those of other Cys-loop receptors — though here electron density for part of the cytoplasmic domain, which is important for trafficking, synaptic localization, and modulation by cytoplasmic proteins, but not visible in previous structures, is also described.

doi: 10.1038/nature13552



Interacting supernovae from photoionization-confined shells around red supergiant stars p.282

A model in which the stellar wind of the fast-moving red supergiant Betelgeuse is photoionized by radiation from external sources can explain the dense, almost static shell recently discovered around the star, and predicts both that debris from Betelgeuse’s eventual supernova explosion will violently collide with the shell and that other red supergiants should have similar, but much more massive, shells.

doi: 10.1038/nature13522


Magneto-optical trapping of a diatomic molecule p.286

Magneto-optical trapping is the standard method for laser cooling and confinement of atomic gases but now this technique has been demonstrated for the diatomic molecule strontium monofluoride, leading to the lowest temperature yet achieved by cooling a molecular gas.

doi: 10.1038/nature13634


Abrupt glacial climate shifts controlled by ice sheet changes p.290

The volume of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheet controlled abrupt millennial-scale climate changes during the last glacial.

doi: 10.1038/nature13592


Continuing megathrust earthquake potential in Chile after the 2014 Iquique earthquake p.295

The 2014 Iquique event was not the earthquake that had been expected to fill the regional seismic gap; given that significant sections of the northern Chile subduction zone have not ruptured in almost 150 years, it is likely that future megathrust earthquakes will occur south and potentially north of the 2014 Iquique sequence.

doi: 10.1038/nature13677


Gradual unlocking of plate boundary controlled initiation of the 2014 Iquique earthquake p.299

A long foreshock series unlocked the South American plate boundary until eventually initiating the M 8.1 Iquique, Chile, earthquake.

doi: 10.1038/nature13681


Dietary specializations and diversity in feeding ecology of the earliest stem mammals p.303

Differences in function and dietary ecology between Morganucodon and Kuehneotherium show that lineage splitting during the earliest stages of mammalian evolution was associated with ecomorphological specialization and niche partitioning.

doi: 10.1038/nature13622


The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance p.306

Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating is used to construct a chronology of Neanderthal disappearance, showing that Neanderthals overlapped with anatomically modern humans for between about 2,000 and 5,000 years.

doi: 10.1038/nature13621


A microbial ecosystem beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet p.310

There has been active debate over microbial life in Antarctic subglacial lakes owing to a paucity of direct observations from beneath the ice sheet and concerns about contamination in the samples that do exist; here the authors present the first geomicrobiological description of pristine water and surficial sediments from Subglacial Lake Whillans, and show that the lake water contains a diverse microbial community, many members of which are closely related to chemolithoautotrophic bacteria and archaea.

doi: 10.1038/nature13667


Haematopoietic stem cell induction by somite-derived endothelial cells controlled by meox1 p.314

A new somite compartment, called the endotome, that contributes to the formation of the embryonic dorsal aorta by providing endothelial progenitors is identified here; endotome-derived endothelial progenitors, whose formation is regulated by the activity of the meox1 gene, induce haematopoietic stem cell formation upon colonization of the nascent dorsal aorta.

doi: 10.1038/nature13678


Jam1a–Jam2a interactions regulate haematopoietic stem cell fate through Notch signalling p.319

Notch signalling has a key role in the generation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during vertebrate development; here two adhesion molecules, Jam1a and Jam2a, are shown to be essential for the contact between precursors of HSCs and the somite during embryonic migration, and the Jam1a–Jam2a interaction is shown to be needed to transmit the Notch signal and produce HSCs.

doi: 10.1038/nature13623


A vaccine targeting mutant IDH1 induces antitumour immunity p.324

The mutant IDH1 protein, which is expressed in a large fraction of human gliomas, is shown to be immunogenic; mutant-specific immune responses can be detected in patients with IDH1 mutated gliomas and generated in mice and are shown to treat established IDH1 mutant tumours in a syngeneic MHC humanized mouse model in a CD4 T-cell-dependent manner.

doi: 10.1038/nature13387


Dynamic pathways of −1 translational frameshifting p.328

To investigate the mechanism of frameshifting during messenger RNA translation, a technique was developed to monitor translation of single molecules in real time using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET); ribosomes were revealed to pause tenfold longer than usual during elongation at the frameshifting sites.

doi: 10.1038/nature13428


X-ray structures of GluCl in apo states reveal a gating mechanism of Cys-loop receptors p.333

This study solved structures of the glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl), a Cys-loop receptor from C. elegant, in an apo, closed state and in a lipid-bound state — comparison of these structures with a previously published structure of GluCl in an ivermectin-bound state reveals what conformational changes probably occur as this membrane protein transitions from the closed/resting state towards an open/activated state.

doi: 10.1038/nature13669

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