目次

Editorials

ドイツは英国の例に倣い、動物実験のもたらす利益を広く社会に説明すべきだ。

Full support p.259

Germany should follow the United Kingdom’s lead and spell out the benefits of animal research.

doi: 10.1038/509259b

米国の核廃棄物隔離施設からの放射能漏れ事故は、安全性に対する過信と規制の段階的緩和というよくある図式で、学ぶべき教訓は多い。

An accident waiting to happen p.259

The release of radioactive material at a US nuclear-waste repository reveals an all-too-common picture of complacency over safety and a gradual downgrading of regulations.

doi: 10.1038/509259a

科学にとって極めて重要なデータサービスを、ビッグデータの時代にも後れをとらずに提供し続ける科学データベースの功績は大きい。

Hard data p.260

It has been no small feat for the Protein Data Bank to stay relevant for 100,000 structures.

doi: 10.1038/509260a

News

米国の核廃棄物施設の放射能漏れ事故で、監視体制の改善の必要性が明らかに。

Call for better oversight of nuclear-waste storage p.267

Accident at US repository highlights need for tougher safety monitoring, say experts.

doi: 10.1038/509267a

ヒトマイクロバイオームを利用した治療法に、大手製薬企業が関心を。

Microbiome therapy gains market traction p.269

Wave of investment suggests drugs from body-dwelling bacteria are heading for the clinic.

doi: 10.1038/509269a

北大西洋海流の勢いが弱まっていることが分かったが、その原因が人為的なものかどうかが議論に。

Atlantic current strength declines p.270

But more data are needed to indicate whether the slowing is a result of human-induced climate change.

doi: 10.1038/509270a

NASAが、サンプルリターンを目指す次期火星探査計画の着陸地点を絞り込みへ。

NASA plans Mars sample-return rover p.272

Agency to narrow down list of landing sites for 2020 mission.

doi: 10.1038/509272a

News Features

HIV研究:四面楚歌

Homophobia and HIV research: Under siege p.274

同性愛を禁じる法律や同性愛に対する反感が、アフリカ諸国のHIV研究やHIV抑制の取り組みを妨げている。

doi: 10.1038/509274a

宇宙論:ファースト・ライト

Cosmology: First light p.276

南極で観測された初期宇宙の名残の重力波シグナルから、さらに多くの手がかりをつかもうと、天文学者たちの競争が始まっている。

doi: 10.1038/509276a

News & Views

気候科学:嵐の場所が変わる

Climate science: Shifting storms p.290

暴風雨の歴史的データの解析から、熱帯低気圧の強さが最大になった緯度の平均が、この30年間で極域の方に大幅に移動したことが示された。

doi: 10.1038/509290a

合成生物学:生命のアルファベットに新しい文字

Synthetic biology: New letters for life's alphabet p.291

地球上の生命体を暗号化する「アルファベット」に使われる核酸中の塩基は5種類が見つかっている。非天然型DNA塩基対を安定に次代に伝えることができる生物の構築は、生命のこの基本的な特徴を定義し直すことになる。

doi: 10.1038/nature13335

有機化学:合作的合成

Organic chemistry: Collaborative synthesis p.293

天然に存在する化合物であるシトリナリンBの分子構造が、化学合成によって再決定された。このことはさらに、関心を集める天然化合物群の生化学的起源の謎を解くのに役立ちそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/509293a

神経生物学:子育てをするのか、しないのかを決めるニューロン

Neurobiology: To care or not to care p.294

成体マウスの仔マウスに対する行動は、性と性的経験によって変わってくる。このような相異なる応答を調節しているのは、脳の視床下部にあるニューロン群の1つの活動であることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/509294a

感覚生物学:生物の磁気コンパスを使えなくする電波

Sensory biology: Radio waves zap the biomagnetic compass p.296

非常によく管理された研究によって、中波帯の微弱な電波だけで、渡り鳥の地球磁場によって定位する能力を破壊できることが分かった。だが、その基盤となる生物物理学的機構はまだ謎のままである。

doi: 10.1038/nature13334

進化:地理と気候が多様化を推し進める

Evolution: Geology and climate drive diversification p.297

ガラパゴス諸島で得られたデータは、地理的特徴と気候が相互作用した結果、景観全体にわたって生物相の隔離と融合のエピソードが起こり得ることを実証している。こうしたサイクルはさまざまなスケールで、種生成の多様な機構を支配している。

doi: 10.1038/509297a

Reviews

有機化学:均一系ニッケル触媒反応の最近の進展

Recent advances in homogeneous nickel catalysis p.299

Some of the most recent and significant developments in homogeneous nickel catalysis are reviewed, including nickel-mediated cross-coupling reactions and carbon–hydrogen bond activation reactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13274

医学:炎症の際に起こるヌクレオチドシグナル伝達

Nucleotide signalling during inflammation p.310

Extracellular ATP released from cells during inflammatory responses predominantly functions as a signalling molecule through the activation of purinergic P2 receptors and contributes to both beneficial and detrimental inflammatory responses; this review examines P2 receptor signalling via ATP and its effect on the outcome of inflammatory and infectious diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature13085

Articles

合成化学:シトリナリンおよびシクロピアミン・コンジェナーの全合成と単離

Total synthesis and isolation of citrinalin and cyclopiamine congeners p.318

Natural products citrinalin B and cyclopiamine B, which contain basic nitrogen atoms that are susceptible to oxidation during synthesis, can be synthesized by the selective introduction and removal of functional groups.

doi: 10.1038/nature13273

神経科学:内側視索前野のガラニン発現ニューロンは子育て行動を支配する

Galanin neurons in the medial preoptic area govern parental behaviour p.325

Sexual experience brings radical changes in how male mice behave with pups—virgin males attack them whereas mature fathers display parental care; here the authors identify a subset of hypothalamic neurons whose ablation leads to parental deficits in both males and females, and whose activation in virgin males suppresses aggression and induces pup grooming.

doi: 10.1038/nature13307

神経科学:空間–時間的神経結合特異性が網膜での方向選択性を支えている

Space–time wiring specificity supports direction selectivity in the retina p.331

Motion detection by the retina is thought to rely largely on the biophysics of starburst amacrine cell dendrites; here machine learning is used with gamified crowdsourcing to draw the wiring diagram involving amacrine and bipolar cells to identify a plausible circuit mechanism for direction selectivity; the model suggests similarities between mammalian and insect vision.

doi: 10.1038/nature13240

c-kit+細胞が心臓に供給する心筋細胞はわずかである

c-kit+ cells minimally contribute cardiomyocytes to the heart p.337

Whether or not endogenous c-kit+ cells residing within the heart contribute cardiomyocytes during physiological ageing or after injury remains unknown; here, using an inducible lineage tracing system, the c-kit+ lineage is shown to generate cardiomyocytes at very low levels, and, by contrast, contributes substantially to cardiac endothelial cell generation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13309

Letters

宇宙:銀河系外部円盤のフレア構造に存在するケフェイド変光星

Cepheid variables in the flared outer disk of our galaxy p.342

Five classical Cepheids have been detected in the outer parts of our Galaxy beyond the Galactic bulge; they are probably associated with the gas in the flared disk and, if so, they are the first stars to be identified in the flare.

doi: 10.1038/nature13246

物理化学:鉄配位錯体における励起状態の電荷・スピンダイナミクスの追跡

Tracking excited-state charge and spin dynamics in iron coordination complexes p.345

Femtosecond resolution X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is shown to track the charge and spin dynamics triggered when an iron coordination complex is excited by light, and establishes the critical role of intermediate spin states in the de-excitation process.

doi: 10.1038/nature13252

気候科学:熱帯低気圧の強度が最大になる位置の極方向への移動

The poleward migration of the location of tropical cyclone maximum intensity p.349

Analysis of global historical data in the Northern and Southern hemispheres reveals a statistically significant, poleward migration of 1° per decade in the average latitude at which tropical cyclones have achieved their lifetime-maximum intensity over the past 30 years.

doi: 10.1038/nature13278

感覚生物学:人為起源の電磁ノイズは渡り鳥の磁気コンパスによる定位を妨害する

Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird p.353

For the first time under reproducible and fully double-blinded conditions, it is shown that anthropogenic electromagnetic noise below the WHO limits affects a biological system: night-migrating birds lose the ability to use the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation when exposed to anthropogenic electromagnetic noise at strengths routinely produced by commonly used electronic devices.

doi: 10.1038/nature13290

微生物学:ヒトの全身にわたる微生物群集タイプの動態と関連性

Dynamics and associations of microbial community types across the human body p.357

The microbiome composition of 300 individuals sampled over 12–18 months was partitioned into microbial community types, which could be associated with the type found at other body sites, as well as with whether individuals were breastfed as an infant, their gender and their level of education.

doi: 10.1038/nature13178

微生物の異なる経路に由来する一過性ネオ抗原によるT細胞活性化

T-cell activation by transitory neo-antigens derived from distinct microbial pathways p.361

T cells discriminate between foreign and host molecules by recognizing distinct microbial molecules, predominantly peptides and lipids. Riboflavin precursors found in many bacteria and yeast also selectively activate mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, an abundant population of innate-like T cells in humans. However, the genesis of these small organic molecules and their mode of presentation to MAIT cells by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-related protein MR1 (ref. 8) are not well understood. Here we show that MAIT-cell activation requires key genes encoding enzymes that form 5-amino-6-d-ribitylaminouracil (5-A-RU), an early intermediate in bacterial riboflavin synthesis. Although 5-A-RU does not bind MR1 or activate MAIT cells directly, it does form potent MAIT-activating antigens via non-enzymatic reactions with small molecules, such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal, which are derived from other metabolic pathways. The MAIT antigens formed by the reactions between 5-A-RU and glyoxal/methylglyoxal were simple adducts, 5-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-6-d-ribitylaminouracil (5-OE-RU) and 5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-d-ribitylaminouracil (5-OP-RU), respectively, which bound to MR1 as shown by crystal structures of MAIT TCR ternary complexes. Although 5-OP-RU and 5-OE-RU are unstable intermediates, they became trapped by MR1 as reversible covalent Schiff base complexes. Mass spectra supported the capture by MR1 of 5-OP-RU and 5-OE-RU from bacterial cultures that activate MAIT cells, but not from non-activating bacteria, indicating that these MAIT antigens are present in a range of microbes. Thus, MR1 is able to capture, stabilize and present chemically unstable pyrimidine intermediates, which otherwise convert to lumazines, as potent antigens to MAIT cells. These pyrimidine adducts are microbial signatures for MAIT-cell immunosurveillance.

doi: 10.1038/nature13160

免疫:カスパーゼ-11活性化にはIFN誘導性GTP分解酵素による病原体含有小胞の分解が必要である

Caspase-11 activation requires lysis of pathogen-containing vacuoles by IFN-induced GTPases p.366

Interferon-inducible GTPases are required for the release of vacuolar Gram-negative bacteria into the cytoplasm and subsequent inflammasome-mediated caspase-11 activation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13157

発生生物学:単一細胞RNA塩基配列解読を用いた末梢肺上皮の細胞系譜ヒエラルキーの再構成

Reconstructing lineage hierarchies of the distal lung epithelium using single-cell RNA-seq p.371

Single-cell transcriptome analysis enables the direct measurement of cell types and lineage hierarchies of the developing distal lung epithelium and identifies a population of bipotential alveolar progenitor cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature13173

植物科学:メディエーターの破壊によりシロイヌナズナのリグニン欠失変異体での停止していた成長が回復する

Disruption of Mediator rescues the stunted growth of a lignin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant p.376

Disruption of lignin biosynthesis has been proposed as a way to improve forage and bioenergy crops, but it can result in stunted growth and developmental abnormalities; here, the undesirable features of one such manipulation are shown to depend on the transcriptional co-regulatory complex Mediator.

doi: 10.1038/nature13084

構造生物学:C型肝炎ウイルスエンベロープ糖タンパク質2のコア細胞外ドメインの構造

Structure of the core ectodomain of the hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein 2 p.381

The crystal structure of the core domain of the hepatitis C virus surface glycoprotein E2 has been solved; the structure shows that, contrary to expectation, E2 is unlikely to be the viral fusion protein.

doi: 10.1038/nature13117

合成生物学:拡張した遺伝アルファベットを用いる半合成生物

A semi-synthetic organism with an expanded genetic alphabet p.385

Triphosphates of hydrophobic nucleotides d5SICS and dNaM are imported into Escherichia coli by an exogenous algal nucleotide triphosphate transporter and then used by an endogenous polymerase to replicate, and faithfully maintain over many generations of growth, a plasmid containing the d5SICS–dNaM unnatural base pair.

doi: 10.1038/nature13314

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