Volume 501 Number 7467



The final assessment p.281

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has provided invaluable evidence for policy-makers, but giant reports should give way to nimbler, more relevant research.

doi: 10.1038/501281a


Spooked p.282

Researchers and lawmakers must work to rebuild trust in secure Internet standards.

doi: 10.1038/501282a

作家Thomas Pynchonは、科学と芸術の互いに実りある融合が実現できることを示した。

Book smart p.282

Novelist Thomas Pynchon shows that science and art can combine, with mutual benefit.

doi: 10.1038/501282b



Germany hits science high p.289

But election prompts fears that budgetary pressures may sap strong investment.

doi: 10.1038/501289a


Grass gets greener p.291

Plant secretion curbs greenhouse-gas emissions from soil.

doi: 10.1038/501291a


ALMA strike stirs up Chilean labour unions p.292

Other observatories watch for sharpened worker demands.

doi: 10.1038/501292a


Israel in deadlock on Horizon 2020 p.293

Conciliation sought in talks on EU research guidelines.

doi: 10.1038/501293a


Progress stalled on coronavirus p.294

Lack of in-depth studies hampers efforts to identify source.

doi: 10.1038/501294a

News Features


Global warming: Outlook for earth p.297


doi: 10.1038/501297a


Climate assessments: 25 years of the IPCC p.298


doi: 10.1038/501298a


Climate science: Rising tide p.300


doi: 10.1038/501300a


IPCC: The climate chairman p.303

何百人もの専門家の意見をまとめるのは簡単ではないが、Ottmar Edenhoferは、着実に、そして哲学を持って、この責務を果たしている。

doi: 10.1038/501303a

News & Views


Climate science: The cause of the pause p.318


doi: 10.1038/501318a


Developmental neuroscience: Miniature human brains p.319


doi: 10.1038/nature12552


Oceanography: Mountain waves in the deep ocean p.321


doi: 10.1038/501321a


Parasitology: Molecular one-upmanship p.322


doi: 10.1038/501322a


Materials science: Fast-track solar cells p.323


doi: 10.1038/nature12557


Stem cells: Down's syndrome link to ageing p.325


doi: 10.1038/nature12558



Cerebral organoids model human brain development and microcephaly p.373

Here the authors present a human pluripotent stem cell-derived three-dimensional organoid culture system that is able to recapitulate several aspects of human brain development in addition to modelling the brain disorder microcephaly, which has been difficult to achieve using mouse models.

doi: 10.1038/nature12517


Usp16 contributes to somatic stem-cell defects in Down’s syndrome p.380

An analysis of somatic tissues derived from mouse models of Down’s syndrome shows reduced self-renewal capacities in various cell types, with these defects partially dependent on triplication of the Usp16 gene; overexpression and knockout studies in human cells shows that USP16 has a role in Down’s syndrome-related proliferation defects, making this gene an attractive option for further study.

doi: 10.1038/nature12530


Structural insight into the biogenesis of β-barrel membrane proteins p.385

The crystal structure of BamA, the central component of the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) complex, from N. gonorrhoeae and H. ducreyi is determined; the structure consists of an interior cavity capped by extracellular loops, an exterior rim with a narrowed hydrophobic surface and a lateral opening of the barrel domain, providing insight into a possible route for the insertion of β-barrel membrane proteins into the bacterial outer membrane.

doi: 10.1038/nature12521



A strong magnetic field around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Galaxy p.391

The unusually large Faraday rotation of a newly discovered pulsar indicates that there is a dynamically important magnetic field near the supermassive black hole believed to lie at the centre of the Milky Way.

doi: 10.1038/nature12499


Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition p.395

The use of organometal halide perovskites as the light-absorbing material in nanostructured solar cells has increased efficiency to practical levels; here it is shown that vapour deposition of the perovskite removes the need for complex nanostructures and will hence simplify large-scale manufacture.

doi: 10.1038/nature12509


Ultrastable silver nanoparticles p.399

Silver nanoparticles are susceptible to oxidation and have accordingly received less attention than gold nanoparticles; ultrastable silver nanoparticles are now reported, which can be produced in very large quantities as a single-sized molecular product, and the origins of their enhanced stability are elucidated using a single-crystal X-ray structure and first-principles calculations.

doi: 10.1038/nature12523


Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling p.403

Global warming has stalled since the late 1990s, puzzling researchers; here a climate model that includes observed sea surface temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific reproduces the hiatus as part of natural variation, suggesting that long-term global warming is likely to continue.

doi: 10.1038/nature12534


Rapid cross-density ocean mixing at mid-depths in the Drake Passage measured by tracer release p.408

An ocean tracer release in the Drake Passage, between South America and Antarctica, shows that its rough bottom topography causes greatly increased internal mixing, by a factor of about 20 at depths of around 1,500 metres.

doi: 10.1038/nature12432


Germline mitochondrial DNA mutations aggravate ageing and can impair brain development p.412

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) accumulate at a higher rate than mutations in nuclear DNA, and although somatic mtDNA mutations are known to be involved in mammalian ageing, the role of germline mutations in this process is unclear: here germline-transmitted mtDNA mutations are shown to be associated with ageing and brain malformations, and maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations may thus influence both development and ageing.

doi: 10.1038/nature12474


DNA damage in germ cells induces an innate immune response that triggers systemic stress resistance p.416

In Caenorhabditis elegans, genome instability in the form of exogenous and endogenous DNA damage in germ cells evokes elevated heat- and oxidative-stress resistance in somatic tissues; this is mediated by MPK-1, which triggers the induction of putative secreted peptides associated with innate immunity, leading to activation of the ubiquitin–proteasome system.

doi: 10.1038/nature12452


Synthetic lethal metabolic targeting of cellular senescence in cancer therapy p.421

In mice with Eµ-myc transgenic lymphomas in which therapy-induced senescence (TIS) depends on the H3K9 histone methyltransferase Suv39h1, TIS-competent lymphomas but not TIS-incompetent Suv39h1– lymphomas show increased glucose utilization and ATP production after senescence-inducing chemotherapy to cope with proteotoxic stress elicited by factors of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP); senescent cancers are selectively vulnerable to drugs that block glucose utilization or autophagy.

doi: 10.1038/nature12437


Bacterial colonization factors control specificity and stability of the gut microbiota p.426

Germ-free mice mono-associated with a single species of Bacteroides are found to be resistant to further colonization by the same, but not different, species; a unique class of polysaccharide utilization loci that is required for the penetration of the colonic mucus and colonization of the crypt channel niche is discovered that explains this observed species-specific saturable colonization.

doi: 10.1038/nature12447


Mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense resistance to human serum p.430

This study shows that Trypanosoma brucei gambiense resists trypanolytic factors (TLFs) in a multifactorial manner, relying on a hydrophobic β-sheet of the TgsGP glycoprotein, which prevents APOL1 toxicity and induces membrane stiffening, as well as a reduction in sensitivity to APOL1 requiring cysteine protease activity and TLF-1 receptor inactivation owing to a single amino acid substitution.

doi: 10.1038/nature12516


Evolutionary implications of a third lymphocyte lineage in lampreys p.435

Cells expressing variable lymphocyte receptor C (VLRC) genes that encode VLRC receptors, which are used by jawless vertebrates to react with antigens, are defined as a second T-cell-like lymphocyte subset (the first being VLRA-bearing cells); distinct properties of these two T-cell-like subsets are reminiscent of the distinction between αβ and γδ T cells in jawed vertebrates.

doi: 10.1038/nature12467


Cross-neutralization of four paramyxoviruses by a human monoclonal antibody p.439

A human monoclonal antibody has been identified which can cross-neutralize both human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV), demonstrating that a single monoclonal antibody can target different viruses, a discovery that may lead to the creation of new therapeutics and vaccines.

doi: 10.1038/nature12442


The structural mechanism of KCNH-channel regulation by the eag domain p.444

An X-ray crystal structure of two intracellular domains of a mouse KCNH voltage-dependent potassium channel, EAG1, is presented: the structure reveals that the eag domain interacts directly with the cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain (CNBHD), and that many KCNH-associated disease mutations are localized to the eag domain–CNBHD interface.

doi: 10.1038/nature12487

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