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Editorials

EU予算協議がようやく合意に達したが、科学予算の詳細がどうなるか、今後の折衝から目を離してはならない。

A deal on the horizon p.147

Leaders have finally thrashed out the European Union budget for the next seven years. But how much money will go to research is yet to be confirmed.

doi: 10.1038/494147a

実際のデータに基づいた幹細胞治療の開発を促進するためには、臨床試験をもっと行いやすくすべきだ。

Preventive therapy p.147

Stem-cell trials must be made easier, so that treatments can be based on real data.

doi: 10.1038/494147b

巨大暴風雨などの被害を防ぐには、単なるインフラ整備にとどまらず、包括的な備えが必要だ。

Damage control p.148

Planning for extreme events must incorporate not just infrastructure but societal preparedness.

doi: 10.1038/494148a

News

インフルエンザ流行状況を予測するグーグル社の指標に、今年は実態との大きなずれが。

When Google got flu wrong p.155

US outbreak foxes a leading web-based method for tracking seasonal flu.

doi: 10.1038/494155a

研究者間でのデータ共有が進むことにより、珍しい遺伝性疾患の診断が容易に。

Data barriers limit genetic diagnosis p.156

Tools for data-sharing promise to improve chances of connecting mutations with symptoms of rare diseases.

doi: 10.1038/494156a

米国の科学機関が、大幅な予算削減を覚悟し、備えを。

Science agencies prepare for cuts p.158

Scientists already feeling the bite of US budget sequester.

doi: 10.1038/494158a

EUが、研究・イノベーション促進計画「ホライズン2020」の規模を縮小へ。

Europe scales back research plans p.159

Leaders propose 13% cut to commission's proposals.

doi: 10.1038/494159a

合成生物学による安価な抗マラリア薬の供給に、期待が。

Malaria drug made in yeast causes market ferment p.160

Synthetic biology delivers combination therapies into an uncertain market.

doi: 10.1038/494160a

論文著者が費用を負担する、迅速な「独立型」査読システムを、米企業が立ち上げへ。

Company offers portable peer review p.161

Author-pays service cuts down on redundant reviews.

doi: 10.1038/494161a

News Features

自然災害:ニューヨーク 対 大西洋

Natural hazards: New York vs the sea p.162

ハリケーン「サンディ」による被災を契機に、この全米一の大都会を洪水から守ろうと、市当局と科学者が対策を考え始めている。

doi: 10.1038/494162a

バイオテクノロジー:カウボーイ文化

Stem cells in Texas: Cowboy culture p.166

テキサス州のバイオ企業が認可されていない幹細胞治療を行い、物議を醸している。

doi: 10.1038/494166a

News & Views

神経科学:行くべきか、行かざるべきか

Neuroscience: To go or not to go p.178

脳の基底核にある2つの平行経路を含むニューロンは順番に動き出し、次いで停止するというやり方ではなく、同時に働いて複雑な運動課題を完遂することが、実験により明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature11856

非対称合成:ホウ素中心でのリレー触媒作用

Asymmetric synthesis: Relay catalysis at a boron centre p.179

ホウ素錯体は、炭化水素モチーフであるアリル基の「活性化イミン」への付加を触媒する。この反応は、リレーに似た過程を経て行われ、合成に有用な化合物の鏡像異性体が片方だけ得られる。

doi: 10.1038/494179a

細胞生物学:ウイルスが教えてくれたお役立ち知識

Cell biology: Beneficial lessons from viruses p.181

病原体は、宿主の抗微生物応答を邪魔するために、オートファジーなどのさまざまな機序を進化させてきた。今回、このような機序についての知識を使って、オートファジー誘導性のペプチドが作製された。これは治療に役立つと考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/nature11947

地球科学:マントルの組成変動は海膨隆起につながる

Earth science: All rise for the case of the missing magma p.182

インド洋の海嶺の1つについての詳細な地質学的解析から、地球マントルに見られる組成の変動は、海嶺に沿った海膨の隆起に意外にも重要な役割を持っていることが示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/nature11950

Review

生化学:Gタンパク質共役受容体の分子的特徴

Molecular signatures of G-protein-coupled receptors p.185

A systematic investigation of high-resolution G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structures uncovers a conserved inter-helical network of non-covalent contacts that defines the GPCR fold, and provides insights into the molecular determinants of different GPCR conformations.

doi: 10.1038/nature11896

Articles

地球:マリオン海膨を支える枯渇したマントルの証拠としての薄い地殻

Thin crust as evidence for depleted mantle supporting the Marion Rise p.195

The global ridge system is dominated by oceanic rises reflecting large variations in axial depth associated with mantle hotspots. The little-studied Marion Rise is as large as the Icelandic Rise, considering both length and depth, but has an axial rift (rather than a high) nearly its entire length. Uniquely along the Southwest Indian Ridge systematic sampling allows direct examination of crustal architecture over its full length. Here we show that, unlike the Icelandic Rise, peridotites are extensively exposed high on the rise, revealing that the crust is generally thin, and often missing, over a rifted rise. Therefore the Marion Rise must be largely an isostatic response to ancient melting events that created low-density depleted mantle beneath the Southwest Indian Ridge rather than thickened crust or a large thermal anomaly. The origin of this depleted mantle is probably the mantle emplaced into the African asthenosphere during the Karoo and Madagascar flood basalt events.

doi: 10.1038/nature11842

創薬:オートファジーを誘導する治療用ペプチド候補の同定

Identification of a candidate therapeutic autophagy-inducing peptide p.201

The lysosomal degradation pathway of autophagy has a crucial role in defence against infection, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer and ageing. Accordingly, agents that induce autophagy may have broad therapeutic applications. One approach to developing such agents is to exploit autophagy manipulation strategies used by microbial virulence factors. Here we show that a peptide, Tat–beclin 1—derived from a region of the autophagy protein, beclin 1, which binds human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Nef—is a potent inducer of autophagy, and interacts with a newly identified negative regulator of autophagy, GAPR-1 (also called GLIPR2). Tat–beclin 1 decreases the accumulation of polyglutamine expansion protein aggregates and the replication of several pathogens (including HIV-1) in vitro, and reduces mortality in mice infected with chikungunya or West Nile virus. Thus, through the characterization of a domain of beclin 1 that interacts with HIV-1 Nef, we have developed an autophagy-inducing peptide that has potential efficacy in the treatment of human diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature11866

Letters

宇宙:惑星規模の衝突のモデルによって明らかになった小惑星4番ベスタの構造

The structure of the asteroid 4 Vesta as revealed by models of planet-scale collisions p.207

Three-dimensional simulations of the global evolution of asteroid 4 Vesta under two overlapping planet-scale collisions closely reproduce its observed shape; but expected large areas of olivine-rich rocks and pure diogenites are not observed on the surface, possibly implying that the outer ~100 km is composed mainly of a basaltic crust (eucrites) with ultramafic intrusions (diogenites).

doi: 10.1038/nature11892

量子情報科学:微小機械共振器によるハイブリッド回路共振器量子電気力学

Hybrid circuit cavity quantum electrodynamics with a micromechanical resonator p.211

The properties of a quantum bit coupled to both a microwave cavity and a phonon mode in a micromechanical resonator suggest that such systems may allow for storage of quantum information in long-lived phonon states and read-out via microwave photons, with applications in quantum information control.

doi: 10.1038/nature11821

化学:アミンおよびアルコールのエナンチオ選択的合成向けの触媒としての単純な有機分子

Simple organic molecules as catalysts for enantioselective synthesis of amines and alcohols p.216

A set of small organic molecules catalyse reactions of unsaturated organoboron reagents with imines and carbonyls to produce amines and alcohols in high enantiomeric purity efficiently, speedily and at low cost through sustainable protocols.

doi: 10.1038/nature11844

気候:日射によって南大洋の対流と深海水温に誘導された中期ブリュンヌ遷移

Insolation-induced mid-Brunhes transition in Southern Ocean ventilation and deep-ocean temperature p.222

Model simulations show that in response to insolation changes only, southern westerlies and feedbacks between sea ice, temperature, evaporation and salinity caused vigorous Southern Ocean ventilation and cooler deep ocean during the interglacials before the mid-Brunhes transition, suggesting that this transition may in fact have resulted from a series of individual interglacial responses to various combinations of insolation conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature11790

進化:最も初期のステム群四肢類の椎骨構造

Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods p.226

X-ray synchrotron microtomography has revealed the three-dimensional vertebral architecture of Ichthyostega, and other crucial and celebrated early tetrapods; a surprising feature is the relationship between the vertebral elements, with the pleurocentra unexpectedly attached to the succeeding intercentrum, suggesting a ‘reverse’ rhachitomous design.

doi: 10.1038/nature11825

生態:生物多様性は宿主群集の感染受容能の予測可能な変化を介して疾患を減少させる

Biodiversity decreases disease through predictable changes in host community competence p.230

A combination of extensive field surveys and realistic experiments involving an amphibian disease system reveals that biodiversity reduces pathogen transmission due to a predictable link between species richness and the ability of communities to support infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature11883

遺伝:酵母の交雑によって見つかった、「欠けている」遺伝率の起因

Finding the sources of missing heritability in a yeast cross p.234

In a cross between two yeast strains, detected loci are found to explain nearly the entire additive contribution to heritable variation for a number of quantitative traits.

doi: 10.1038/nature11867

脳:行動開始時に見られる線条体直接路と間接路の同時活性化

Concurrent activation of striatal direct and indirect pathways during action initiation p.238

In mice performing an operant task, increases in neural activity in direct- and indirect-pathway spiny projection neurons (SPNs) are associated with action initiation but not with inactivity, and concurrent activation of SPNs from both pathways in one hemisphere precedes the initiation of contraversive movements.

doi: 10.1038/nature11846

発生:胎仔での直接的およびメラノプシン依存的な光応答がマウスの目の発生を調節する

A direct and melanopsin-dependent fetal light response regulates mouse eye development p.243

During retinal vascular development there is simultaneous regression of the hyaloid vasculature and formation of the retinal vasculature; here it is demonstrated that regression of developing vasculature is light dependent and acts via the photoreceptor melanopsin.

doi: 10.1038/nature11823

細胞:Wntが促進する再生によって誘導される単一のLgr5+肝幹細胞のin vitroでの増殖

In vitro expansion of single Lgr5+ liver stem cells induced by Wnt-driven regeneration p.247

A mouse model of liver damage has identified a population of Lrg5+ liver stem cells that can generate hepatoctyes and bile ducts in vivo.

doi: 10.1038/nature11826

がん:メラノーマで見られるベムラフェニブ耐性のモデルが示す薬剤耐性を未然に防ぐ戦略

Modelling vemurafenib resistance in melanoma reveals a strategy to forestall drug resistance p.251

BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib have shown promising effects in patients with BRAF-mutant melanomas, but the tumours generally develop resistance; vemurafenib-resistant melanomas are now shown to be drug dependent, and an intermittent dosing schedule can help prevent drug resistance.

doi: 10.1038/nature11814

医学:ビグアナイド剤はサイクリックAMP産生を低下させて肝臓のグルカゴンシグナル伝達を抑制する

Biguanides suppress hepatic glucagon signalling by decreasing production of cyclic AMP p.256

Biguanides such as metformin, which is the most widely prescribed drug for type-2 diabetes, are shown to antagonize the actions of glucagon by decreasing the levels of cyclic AMP.

doi: 10.1038/nature11808

免疫:T-betの段階的発現は、CCR6RORγt+自然リンパ球の細胞運命と機能を制御する

A T-bet gradient controls the fate and function of CCR6RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells p.261

The graded expression of the transcription factor T-bet in CCR6−RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells is found to be involved in the control of interferon-γ expression, a cytokine that is required to protect the epithelial barrier against Salmonella infections.

doi: 10.1038/nature11813

プロテオミクス:量的形質の解析に使用できる、酵母プロテオームの完全な質量分析マップ

A complete mass-spectrometric map of the yeast proteome applied to quantitative trait analysis p.266

High-throughput peptide synthesis and mass spectrometry are used to generate a near-complete reference map of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome; two versions of the map (supporting discovery- and hypothesis-driven proteomics) are then applied to a protein-based quantitative trait locus analysis.

doi: 10.1038/nature11835

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