Volume 494 Number 7437



Eyes and ears p.281

Two explosions last week demonstrated the importance of global monitoring.

doi: 10.1038/494281b


Vital statistics p.281

That robust data are not collected on births, deaths and causes of death is a scandal. A new drive and greater investment are needed to grow the field of health metrics.

doi: 10.1038/494281a


Net gains p.282

Estimating the scale of the problem may allow us to arrest dangerous levels of overfishing.

doi: 10.1038/494282a



Seed-patent case in Supreme Court p.289

Loss of patent control could rekindle ‘terminator’ technology.

doi: 10.1038/494289a


Gene sequencing leaves the laboratory p.290

Maturing technology speeds medical diagnoses.

doi: 10.1038/494290a

中国が、地下2,500 mに建設した世界最深の実験室で、暗黒物質の観測へ。

Dark-matter hunt gets deep p.291

China launches world’s deepest particle-physics experiment — but it joins a crowded field.

doi: 10.1038/494291a


Reforms at stake in Italian election p.293

Italy’s researchers want change they can believe in.

doi: 10.1038/494293a


China slow to tap shale-gas bonanza p.294

Geology and infrastructure could impede development.

doi: 10.1038/494294a


Oil money takes US academy into uncharted waters p.295

Venerable government adviser will fund grants with half-billion-dollar windfall.

doi: 10.1038/494295a

News Features


Neuroscience: As the worm turns p.296


doi: 10.1038/494296a


Green cement: Concrete Solutions p.300


doi: 10.1038/494300a

News & Views


Palaeoanthropology: Of humans, dogs and tiny tools p.316


doi: 10.1038/494316a


Ageing: Stem cells on a stress-busting diet p.317


doi: 10.1038/nature11948


Climate science: Global warming and tropical carbon p.319


doi: 10.1038/nature11949


Microbial oceanography: Killers of the winners p.320


doi: 10.1038/nature11951


Infection biology: Cheats never prosper p.321


doi: 10.1038/494321a



FOXO3A directs a protective autophagy program in haematopoietic stem cells p.323

Autophagy is shown to be an essential mechanism that protects haematopoietic stem cells from metabolic stress; the transcription factor FOXO3A maintains a pro-autophagy gene expression program that poises haematopoietic stem cells to rapidly mount a protective autophagic response upon metabolic stress.

doi: 10.1038/nature11895


宇宙:NGC 4526 における分子ガスの運動に基づくブラックホール質量の計測

A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526 p.328

In this study a supermassive black-hole mass is measured by tracing the motions of molecular gas clouds swirling around it, a technique that promises to allow measurements of black-hole mass in many more galaxies of all types than previously possible.

doi: 10.1038/nature11819


Generation of electron Airy beams p.331

The diffraction of electrons through a nanoscale hologram that imprints a certain phase modulation on the electrons’ wavefunction produces a non-spreading electron Airy beam that follows a parabolic trajectory and can reconstruct its original shape after passing an obstacle.

doi: 10.1038/nature11840


Dicalcium nitride as a two-dimensional electride with an anionic electron layer p.336

The ionic crystal Ca2N is shown to be an electride in terms of [Ca2N]+·e, with diffusive two-dimensional transport in dense electron layers.

doi: 10.1038/nature11812


Sensitivity of tropical carbon to climate change constrained by carbon dioxide variability p.341

A linear relationship between the sensitivity of tropical land carbon storage to warming and the sensitivity of the annual growth rate of atmospheric CO2 to tropical temperature anomalies provides a tight constraint on the sensitivity of tropical land carbon to climate change.

doi: 10.1038/nature11882


Behavioural and genetic analyses of Nasonia shed light on the evolution of sex pheromones p.345

A genetic and behavioural study in related species of Nasonia wasps reveals how pheromone changes relevant to speciation could evolve through genes creating a new pheromone component by changing the stereochemistry of an existing pheromone molecule.

doi: 10.1038/nature11838


Ecosystem resilience despite large-scale altered hydroclimatic conditions p.349

The resilience of a global sample of ecosystems to an increase in drought conditions is assessed, comparing data from the early twenty-first with the late twentieth century; results indicate a cross-ecosystem capacity for tolerating low precipitation and responding to high precipitation during recent warm drought and yet suggest a threshold to resilience with prolonged warm drought.

doi: 10.1038/nature11836


Stabilization of cooperative virulence by the expression of an avirulent phenotype p.353

A phenotypically avirulent subpopulation of the intestinal pathogen Salmonella typhimurium promotes evolutionary stability of virulence.

doi: 10.1038/nature11913


Abundant SAR11 viruses in the ocean p.357

Viruses are isolated from the SAR11 bacterial clade, the most abundant group of bacteria in the ocean, that were thought to be resistant to viral infection; because of the essential role of SAR11 in carbon cycling these viruses are also an important factor in biogeochemical cycling.

doi: 10.1038/nature11921


T-helper-1-cell cytokines drive cancer into senescence p.361

T-helper-1-cell cytokines tumour necrosis factor and interferon-γ are shown to drive tumour cells into senescence in a mouse model of β-cell carcinoma and human carcinoma cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature11824


APOBEC3B is an enzymatic source of mutation in breast cancer p.366

The DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B is shown to be overexpressed and highly active in most breast cancers; deamination by APOBEC3B could serve as an endogenous, continual source of DNA damage leading to mutations, including C-to-T transitions and other aberrations seen in many breast tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature11881


OTUD7B controls non-canonical NF-κB activation through deubiquitination of TRAF3 p.371

The deubiquitinase OTUD7B is shown to regulate the non-canonical NF-κB pathway by inhibiting TRAF3 proteolysis.

doi: 10.1038/nature11831


Central role of E3 ubiquitin ligase MG53 in insulin resistance and metabolic disorders p.375

MG53 acts as an E3 ligase that targets the insulin receptor and IRS1 for ubiquitin-dependent degradation; when MG53 is upregulated, metabolic syndrome ensues.

doi: 10.1038/nature11834


Control of substrate access to the active site in methane monooxygenase p.380

The crystal structure of the complex between the hydroxylase and regulatory component of soluble methane monooxygenase is presented, revealing how the latter component controls substrate access to the hydroxylase active site.

doi: 10.1038/nature11880


High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Trypanosoma brucei ribosome p.385

High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy shows that the Trypanosoma brucei kinetoplastid ribosome is characterized by the presence of large expansion segments, ribosomal-protein extensions and additional rRNA insertions, which may have implications for the protein-translation regulation process.

doi: 10.1038/nature11872

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