Research press release





今回、Dan Barouchたちの研究グループは、非ヒト霊長類に感染するHIV(SHIV)に感染し、抗レトロウイルス療法を受けている11匹のアカゲザルに、広範囲中和抗体と自然免疫系刺激剤を併用投与した。この自然免疫系刺激剤は、非感染免疫細胞とSHIVに感染した免疫細胞を活性化し、これにより抗体が除去すべきSHIV感染細胞を標的とすることができるようになる。これら11匹中6匹のアカゲザルには、抗レトロウイルス療法の中止から28週間後にウイルスリバウンドの徴候が見られた。これに対して、上述の併用治療を受けなかった対照群の11匹のアカゲザルは全例で、抗レトロウイルス療法の中止から平均21日でウイルスリバウンドが起こった。


A combination of a potent antibody and an immune system stimulant can reduce levels of latent HIV in rhesus monkeys undergoing antiretroviral therapy, reports a study published online this week in Nature. This strategy could prevent HIV re-emergence after antiretroviral therapy.

Antiretroviral drugs help manage HIV infections by preventing viral replication. However, they do not eliminate the ‘hidden’ reservoir of latent viruses that remains in certain cells and can re-emerge if treatment stops. Broadly neutralizing antibodies have been shown to reduce virus levels when they are administered following suspension of antiretroviral therapy. However, it was unknown whether antibodies could target latent HIV reservoirs.

Dan Barouch and colleagues administered a combination of a broadly neutralizing antibody and an innate immune system stimulator to 11 rhesus monkeys that were infected with a form of the virus that infects non-human primates and were undergoing antiretroviral therapy. The stimulator activated both uninfected immune cells and those harbouring the virus, allowing the antibody to flag the infected cells for elimination. The authors found that 6 of the 11 monkeys showed signs of viral rebound 28 weeks after antiretroviral treatment was suspended. The virus rebounded in all 11 monkeys in a control group that did not receive the combination treatment, in an average of 21 days.

The monkeys began antiretroviral therapy shortly after infection, so their viral reservoirs may have been small and relatively easy to eliminate. Additionally, they were only monitored for 28 weeks, whereas in humans HIV can take up to two years to rebound. The authors conclude that, in principle, broadly neutralizing antibodies could offer a useful strategy against latent HIV infection in humans, although further testing is required.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0600-6

「Nature 関連誌注目のハイライト」は、ネイチャー広報部門が報道関係者向けに作成したリリースを翻訳したものです。より正確かつ詳細な情報が必要な場合には、必ず原著論文をご覧ください。

メールマガジンリストの「Nature 関連誌今週のハイライト」にチェックをいれていただきますと、毎週最新のNature 関連誌のハイライトを皆様にお届けいたします。