Research press release





A型肝炎に関しては、有効なワクチンが利用できるようになるまでの数か月間、受動免疫療法によって予防効果が得られるが、今回、Malcolm Martinたちは、この考えに基づいて、これと似た予防効果を強力な抗HIV抗体の単回投与によって長期間持続させられるかどうかを調べた。9匹のマカクザルからなる対照群においてHIVのヒト間伝播のシミュレーションが行われ、感染までの平均期間が3週間とされた。次に、6匹のサルからなるグループ(3グループ)に異なる3種類の抗体を投与してから週1回のSHIVの攻撃接種を実施した。抗体を投与された3グループともウイルス感染が遅れ、予防効果は最長で23週間だった。予防期間は、抗体の有効性と半減期と直接関連していた。また、最も有効性の低い抗体については、アミノ酸変異を導入することで半減期を延長できることも判明した。


A single injection of HIV-targeting antibodies can protect monkeys from the simian version of the virus, SHIV, for nearly six months, reports a paper published online this week in Nature. The study provides a proof of concept for HIV-1 protection that could have a major impact on transmission of the virus in high-risk populations.

Antibodies from HIV-1-infected individuals have been shown to block infection in animals when transferred a day or two prior to a single high-dose virus challenge. However, the long-term efficacy of this passive immunization approach has not yet been examined.

Based on the idea that passive immunization against hepatitis A protected people for several months before an effective vaccine was available, Malcolm Martin and colleagues explored whether a single administration of a potent anti-HIV antibody could provide similar protection for extended periods of time. The authors simulated human transmission of HIV in a control group of nine macaques and determined that the median time to infection was 3 weeks. They then administered a single dose of three different antibodies to three groups of six animals and exposed them to weekly virus challenges. Virus acquisition was delayed in all groups that received antibodies, with the longest protection lasting 23 weeks. The duration of protection was directly related to the potency and half-life of the antibody. They also found that they could extend the half-life of the least potent antibody by introducing amino acid mutations.

The authors suggest that a combination of these antibodies could be used to improve their overall ability to block the transmission of resistant HIV-1 strains. However, more research is needed to establish whether this approach could represent a viable alternative to HIV-1 vaccination in humans.

doi: 10.1038/nature17677

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