Volume 559 Number 7714


米国環境保護庁(EPA)長官Scott Pruittがついに辞任したが、科学的な真実に全く関心を持たないトランプ政権の脅威は続いている。

Environmental sciences: With Pruitt gone, Trump and his allies continue to threaten the EPA p.301

Scientists at the US Environmental Protection Agency hope for the best, but fear the worst.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05744-3


Environmental sciences: Officials and scientists need help to track down rogue source of CFCs p.302

Emissions of ozone-destroying chemical blamed on Chinese companies, but origin is yet to be confirmed.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05743-4


Careers: Track the fate of postdocs to help the next generation of scientists p.302

Data on the career paths of young researchers would help to guide the ‘lost generation’.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05745-2



Single subatomic particle illuminates mysterious origins of cosmic rays p.309

When a subatomic particle from space streaked through Antarctica last September, astrophysicists raced to find the source.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05703-y


Epidemiology: China expands surveillance of sewage to police illegal drug use p.310

Privacy concerns and cultural differences make some researchers sceptical that the method could work in other countries.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05728-3


Communication: Science journals end open-access trial with Gates Foundation p.311

Pilot experiment has seen 26 papers published under open-access terms so far and should yield a report by the end of the year.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05729-2


Planetary science: Jupiter has 10 more moons we didn't know about — and they're weird p.312

The planet now has 79 known moons, including a tiny oddball on a collision course with its neighbours.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05725-6


Brain: Gene therapy in mouse fetuses treats deadly disease p.313

The method could minimize damage from disease if a condition is diagnosed in utero.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05726-5

News Features


Climate change: Science under siege: behind the scenes at Trump’s troubled environment agency p.316


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05706-9

News & Views


Materials science: A record-breaking microscope p.334


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05711-y


Cardiovascular biology: Coronary artery development, one cell at a time p.335


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05463-9


Genomics: High-quality genomes reveal new differences between the great apes p.336


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05679-9


Medical research: Resistance to prostate-cancer treatment is driven by immune cells p.338


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05460-y


Climate change: Sluggish Atlantic circulation could cause global temperatures to surge p.340


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05712-x


Ecology: Speciation far from the madding crowd p.341


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-05575-2



Imaging techniques: Electron ptychography of 2D materials to deep sub-ångström resolution p.343

Combining an electron microscope pixel-array detector that collects the entire distribution of scattered electrons with full-field ptychography greatly improves image resolution and contrast compared to traditional techniques, even at low beam energies.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0298-5


Genetic association study: Insights into clonal haematopoiesis from 8,342 mosaic chromosomal alterations p.350

Analysis of genotyping data for more than 150,000 individuals from the UK Biobank using long-range phase information sheds light on mechanisms of clonal haematopoiesis.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0321-x


Angiogenesis: Single-cell analysis of early progenitor cells that build coronary arteries p.356

During development, new arteries can arise from pre-existing veins; the cell fate switch involved occurs gradually and before the onset of blood flow in mouse embryo hearts.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0288-7


Cancer microenvironment: IL-23 secreted by myeloid cells drives castration-resistant prostate cancer p.363

IL-23 produced by myeloid-derived suppressor cells regulates castration resistance in prostate cancer by sustaining androgen receptor signalling.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0266-0



DNA computing: Scaling up molecular pattern recognition with DNA-based winner-take-all neural networks p.370

DNA-strand-displacement reactions are used to implement a neural network that can distinguish complex and noisy molecular patterns from a set of nine possibilities—an improvement on previous demonstrations that distinguished only four simple patterns.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0289-6


Automation: Controlling an organic synthesis robot with machine learning to search for new reactivity p.377

A robot instructed by a machine learning algorithm and coupled with real-time spectroscopic systems provides fast and accurate reaction outcome predictions and reactivity assessments, leading to the discovery of new reactions.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0307-8


Palaeoceanography: Synchronous tropical and polar temperature evolution in the Eocene p.382

A 26-million-year record of equatorial sea surface temperatures reveals synchronous changes of tropical and polar temperatures during the Eocene epoch forced by variations in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, with a constant degree of polar amplification.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0272-2


Atmospheric science: Global surface warming enhanced by weak Atlantic overturning circulation p.387

In preindustrial times, a weak Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation led to cooling in the Northern Hemisphere, but now it is predicted to cause accelerated global surface warming.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0320-y


Biodiversity: An inverse latitudinal gradient in speciation rate for marine fishes p.392

Contrary to previous hypotheses, high-latitude fish lineages form new species at much faster rates than their tropical counterparts especially in geographical regions that are characterized by low surface temperatures and high endemism.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0273-1


Careers: Hot streaks in artistic, cultural, and scientific careers p.396

The career trajectories of around 30,000 artists, film directors and scientists show that individuals in each domain have ‘hot streaks’ during which their works have increased impact, despite showing no increase in productivity.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0315-8


Acute myeloid leukaemia: Prediction of acute myeloid leukaemia risk in healthy individuals p.400

Individuals who are at high risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia can be identified years before diagnosis using genetic information from blood samples.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0317-6


Cancer immunotherapy: Reprogramming human T cell function and specificity with non-viral genome targeting p.405

A non-viral strategy to introduce large DNA sequences into T cells enables the correction of a pathogenic mutation that causes autoimmunity, and the replacement of an endogenous T-cell receptor with an engineered receptor that can recognize cancer antigens.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0326-5


Mass spectrometry: Mechanism of parkin activation by PINK1 p.410

Structural mass spectrometry of full-length human parkin and a structure of the activated parkin core reveal large-scale domain rearrangements involved in activation of parkin by PINK1.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0224-x


Biosynthesis: Resistance-gene-directed discovery of a natural-product herbicide with a new mode of action p.415

Fungal genome mining targeted to self-resistance genes close to biosynthetic gene clusters identifies a pathway that produces aspterric acid, which proves to be a potent inhibitor of plant growth.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0319-4


Alternative splicing: Prespliceosome structure provides insights into spliceosome assembly and regulation p.419

The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae prespliceosome provides insights into splice-site selection and early spliceosome assembly events.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0323-8


Biochemistry: PtdIns(4,5)P2 stabilizes active states of GPCRs and enhances selectivity of G-protein coupling p.423

Mass spectrometry-based assays are used to reveal specificity and structural determinants of lipid binding to class A G-protein-coupled receptors, and the effects of specific lipids on receptor coupling to G proteins.

doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0325-6

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