Volume 545 Number 7655



Clock is ticking for WHO decision over Taiwan p.385

The World Health Organization shouldn’t allow regional politics to hamper public health.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22019


Intelligence research should not be held back by its past p.385

The nuances achieved by modern genetics can be used to dispel a history of racism and elitism.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22021


Eighty-eight days till the next total eclipse of the Sun p.386

Nature won’t repeat the mistake of its founding editor when this summer’s totality is visible in the United States.

doi: 10.1038/545385b



Iron-dumping ocean experiment sparks controversy p.393

Canadian foundation says its field research could boost fisheries in Chile, but researchers doubt its motives.

doi: 10.1038/545393a


Fixing the tomato: CRISPR edits correct plant-breeding snafu p.394

Geneticists harness two mutations — each cherished by breeders, but detrimental when combined — to improve on 10,000 years of tomato domestication.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22018


China expands DNA data grab in troubled western region p.395

Alarms raised over suspected efforts to collect massive numbers of genetic samples from citizens.

doi: 10.1038/545395a


Drop in cases of Zika threatens large-scale trials p.396

Studies are struggling to recruit participants following a marked drop in cases of the virus.

doi: 10.1038/545396a


Earth-observing companies push for more-advanced science satellites p.397

Firms seek to develop sophisticated instruments to compete with government offerings.

doi: 10.1038/545397a

News Features


The best-kept secrets to winning grants p.399


doi: 10.1038/545399a

News & Views


Quantum physics: A firmer grip on the Hubbard model p.414


doi: 10.1038/545414a


Blood: Education for stem cells p.415

造血幹細胞は、全ての種類の血液細胞を生みだす。そして、in vitroでの血液細胞の作製は、幹細胞生物学における念願の目標である。今回、2つのグループによって、この偉業が異なる方法で達成された。

doi: 10.1038/nature22496


Medical research: Personalized test tracks cancer relapse p.417


doi: 10.1038/545417a


Astronomy: Quasars signpost massive galaxies p.418


doi: 10.1038/545418a


Plant Biology: An immunity boost combats crop disease p.420


doi: 10.1038/nature22497


In Retrospect: Global health estimated over two decades p.421


doi: 10.1038/545421a




Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells p.432

Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell conversion of human pluripotent stem cell-derived haemogenic endothelium.

doi: 10.1038/nature22370


Conversion of adult endothelium to immunocompetent haematopoietic stem cells p.439

The authors reprogram in vitro endothelial cells from adult mice into engraftable haematopoietic stem cells that display single-cell and multilineage properties, are capable of long-term self-renewal and can reconstitute T cell adaptive immune function.

doi: 10.1038/nature22326


Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early-stage lung cancer evolution p.446

Circulating tumour DNA profiling in early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer can be used to track single-nucleotide variants in plasma to predict lung cancer relapse and identify tumour subclones involved in the metastatic process.

doi: 10.1038/nature22364


Chromatin states define tumour-specific T cell dysfunction and reprogramming p.452

Epigenetic programming of T cells in solid tumours from a functional to a dysfunctional state occurs in two phases, and only the first phase is reversible.

doi: 10.1038/nature22367



Rapidly star-forming galaxies adjacent to quasars at redshifts exceeding 6 p.457

Four galaxies discovered near quasars at redshifts exceeding 6 have star-formation rates that are high enough to explain the massive elliptical galaxies known to exist at redshifts of about 4.

doi: 10.1038/nature22358


A cold-atom Fermi–Hubbard antiferromagnet p.462

An antiferromagnet with a correlation length that encompasses the whole system is created with the aid of quantum gas microscopy of cold atoms in an optical lattice.

doi: 10.1038/nature22362


Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets p.467

Vehicle emissions contribute to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and tropospheric ozone air pollution, affecting human health, crop yields and climate worldwide. On-road diesel vehicles produce approximately 20 per cent of global anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are key PM2.5 and ozone precursors. Regulated NOx emission limits in leading markets have been progressively tightened, but current diesel vehicles emit far more NOx under real-world operating conditions than during laboratory certification testing. Here we show that across 11 markets, representing approximately 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, nearly one-third of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions and over half of on-road light-duty diesel vehicle emissions are in excess of certification limits. These excess emissions (totalling 4.6 million tons) are associated with about 38,000 PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths globally in 2015, including about 10 per cent of all ozone-related premature deaths in the 28 European Union member states. Heavy-duty vehicles are the dominant contributor to excess diesel NOx emissions and associated health impacts in almost all regions. Adopting and enforcing next-generation standards (more stringent than Euro 6/VI) could nearly eliminate real-world diesel-related NOx emissions in these markets, avoiding approximately 174,000 global PM2.5- and ozone-related premature deaths in 2040. Most of these benefits can be achieved by implementing Euro VI standards where they have not yet been adopted for heavy-duty vehicles.

doi: 10.1038/nature22086


The concurrent emergence and causes of double volcanic hotspot tracks on the Pacific plate p.472

The emergence of geographically and geochemically distinct double volcanic chains on the Pacific plate coincides with a recent azimuthal change in the motion of the plate.

doi: 10.1038/nature22054


Identification of preoptic sleep neurons using retrograde labelling and gene profiling p.477

Identification of sleep-active and sleep-promoting neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus using neural projection tracing tools to target this population among a group of intermingled neurons, all with various functions.

doi: 10.1038/nature22350


Evolutionary enhancement of Zika virus infectivity in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes p.482

A mutation that increases the secretion of Zika virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in infected hosts enhances the ability of the virus to infect its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti and might have contributed to the recent Zika epidemic.

doi: 10.1038/nature22365


Global translational reprogramming is a fundamental layer of immune regulation in plants p.487

Global translatome analysis shows that plants also modify their translational output—independently of the changes in transcriptional output—to establish pattern-triggered immunity.

doi: 10.1038/nature22371


uORF-mediated translation allows engineered plant disease resistance without fitness costs p.491

In both laboratory and field studies, engineering translational control of immune mediator production in Arabidopsis and rice confers disease resistance, without compromising plant fitness.

doi: 10.1038/nature22372


PD-1 expression by tumour-associated macrophages inhibits phagocytosis and tumour immunity p.495

Mouse and human tumour-associated macrophages express PD-1, which increases with cancer stage and induces decreased phagocytosis by macrophages; by contrast, PD-L1 removal increases phagocytosis in vivo, decreases tumour burden and increases survival of mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature22396


Cancer progression by reprogrammed BCAA metabolism in myeloid leukaemia p.500

BCAT1, a cytosolic aminotransferase for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), is aberrantly activated and functionally required for disease progression in chronic myeloid leukaemia.

doi: 10.1038/nature22314


Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks p.505

Affinity purification–mass spectrometry elucidates protein interaction networks and co-complexes to build, to our knowledge, the largest experimentally derived human protein interaction network so far, termed BioPlex 2.0.

doi: 10.1038/nature22366

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