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Editorials

米国議会が先週発表したヒト胎児組織を使った研究に関する調査報告では、事実が極めてゆがめられている。

Fantasy politics p.133

A US congressional investigation has distorted the truth about research that uses human fetal tissue — and sets a troubling precedent.

doi: 10.1038/541133a

環境、気候変動問題などへの「自然を活用した解決策」は、耳慣れない言葉だが重要である。

‘Nature-based solutions’ is the latest green jargon that means more than you might think p.133

It may sound vague, but the term represents real and vital concepts.

doi: 10.1038/541133b

2017年、Nature Researchは、Nature AstronomyNature Ecology & EvolutionNature Biomedical EngineeringNature Human BehaviourNature Reviews Chemistryの5誌を創刊する。

Announcement: Nature launches five new journals for 2017 p.134

doi: 10.1038/541134a

News

中国のiCarbonX社が発表した、人工知能(AI)を利用したヘルスケアアプリに大きな注目が。

Chinese AI company plans to mine health data faster than rivals p.141

iCarbonX believes its cutting-edge partners and generous funding give it the upper hand.

doi: 10.1038/541141a

昨年末、世界のトッププロ棋士たちを次々と打ち負かし話題となった謎のネット棋士「Master」の正体が、グーグル社のアルファ碁だったことが明らかに。

Google reveals secret test of AI bot to beat top Go players p.142

Updated version of DeepMind's AlphaGo program behind mystery online competitor.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21253

全米科学財団(NSF)が、プエルトリコのアレシボ天文台から手を引く方向へ。

Legendary radio telescope hangs in the balance p.143

US National Science Foundation looks to slash funding for Puerto Rico’s Arecibo Observatory.

doi: 10.1038/541143a

香辛料の成分には、薬効がなくても新薬スクリーニングで陽性になりやすいものがあると、化学者が注意喚起を。

Deceptive curcumin offers cautionary tale for chemists p.144

Spice extract dupes assays and leads some drug hunters astray.

doi: 10.1038/541144a

英国のEU離脱は、環境政策の面では利点も。

Brexit offers rare chance to make Britain greener p.145

Environmental scientists plan to push for policy changes but are nervous about losing current protections.

doi: 10.1038/541145a

米国のトランプ次期政権が、FDAの医薬品規制の方法を改革する機会になる可能性も。

Gene-edited cows, rogue clinics, speedier drug approvals: the challenges facing Trump's FDA chief p.146

The agency's next leader will have an opportunity to reshape its approach to regulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21256

News Features

保全:大規模な駆除

Behind New Zealand’s wild plan to purge all pests p.148

ニュージーランドは、侵略的外来捕食動物を2050年までに駆除するという大胆な計画を立てているが、果たしてうまくいくのだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/541148a

News & Views

生物学的手法:皿の中で胃を形成させる

Biological techniques: Stomach growth in a dish p.160

胃の主要部分に似た構造をヒト胚性幹細胞からin vitroで成長させるプロトコルが開発された。これは、胃の発生に関する知見が得られる進歩である。

doi: 10.1038/nature21110

流体力学:接触しない水流

Fluid dynamics: Water flows out of touch p.161

超疎水性表面では、水と固体材料の摩擦抵抗が低減するが、この効果は一時的であることが多い。今回、摩擦抵抗の持続的低減が実現された。これは船舶やパイプラインの流れに応用できると思われる。

doi: 10.1038/541161a

がんゲノミクス:違いを探す

Cancer genomics: Spot the difference p.162

ヒト食道がんの総合的なゲノム解析および分子解析によって、既存の薬物の標的となり得る異常が明らかになり、こうした腫瘍のサブタイプへの分類が現状のままでは不十分であることが示された。

doi: 10.1038/nature21112

光物理学:超高フィネス光共振器によるレーザー発振

Optical physics: Supercavity lasing p.164

レーザーの光は、定在波の形で閉じ込められる。こうした波を操作することによって、閉じ込めを増強する光学系が設計され、高品質ビームを放射する小型レーザーが得られた。

doi: 10.1038/541164a

生理学:新たに見つかった肺伸展のメカノセンサー

Physiology: Mechanosensor of lung inflation identified p.165

Piezo2タンパク質は、肺体積の変化を感知し、さまざまなニューロンに作用してこの情報を脳に運ぶことが今回明らかになった。この知見により、機械刺激感知機構におけるPiezo2の役割がまた1つリストに加わった。

doi: 10.1038/nature21111

幹細胞:バリンの欠乏という飢餓状態をうまく使う

Stem cells: Valine starvation leads to a hungry niche p.166

血液を若返らせる造血幹細胞は、アミノ酸バリンの食事供給源に依存していることが明らかになり、この知見を利用することで、マウスの骨髄移植の毒性が低減されることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature21106

気候科学:アマゾン森林の復元力

Climate science: The resilience of Amazonian forests p.167

同位体データから、直近の氷期に伴う乾燥期に、降雨の変化に敏感な地域のアアマゾン森林が生き残ったことを示唆する証拠が得られ、アマゾンの乾燥状態に関する議論に決着がつけられた。

doi: 10.1038/541167a

Articles

がん:食道がんの総合的なゲノム特性解析

Integrated genomic characterization of oesophageal carcinoma OPEN p.169

The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network report integrated genomic and molecular analyses of 164 squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus; they find genomic and molecular features that differentiate squamous and adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus, and strong similarities between oesophageal adenocarcinomas and the chromosomally unstable variant of gastric adenocarcinoma, suggesting that gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma is a single disease entity.

doi: 10.1038/nature20805

神経科学:Piezo2は気道の伸展を感知し肺膨張誘導性の無呼吸症に関与する

Piezo2 senses airway stretch and mediates lung inflation-induced apnoea p.176

The mechanoreceptor Piezo2 is required for both the Hering–Breuer inflation reflex in adult mice and the inflation of the lungs of newborn mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature20793

発生生物学:Wnt/βカテニン経路はマウスとヒトで胃底部の運命指定を促す

Wnt/β-catenin promotes gastric fundus specification in mice and humans p.182

Wnt signalling is shown to be required for specification of the gastric fundus in mice, and was used to develop human gastric organoids with functional fundic cell types.

doi: 10.1038/nature21021

Letters

天文学:冥王星表面のタルタロス・ドルサにある剣状地形の起源としてのペニテンテス

Penitentes as the origin of the bladed terrain of Tartarus Dorsa on Pluto p.188

Simulations of Pluto suggest that the sharp ridges in the Tartarus Dorsa region of Pluto are penitentes that formed over the past tens of millions of years.

doi: 10.1038/nature20779

量子物理学:スクイーズド光による量子反作用限界を超えるサイドバンド冷却

Sideband cooling beyond the quantum backaction limit with squeezed light p.191

Squeezed light is used to sideband cool the motion of a macroscopic mechanical object below the limit imposed by quantum fluctuations.

doi: 10.1038/nature20604

フォトニクス:連続状態中の光子束縛状態からのレーザー発振作用

Lasing action from photonic bound states in continuum p.196

Lasing action from an optically pumped bound state in the continuum cavity is demonstrated, of both fundamental interest and with applications from optical trapping to biological sensing and quantum information.

doi: 10.1038/nature20799

化学:分子ナノリングにおける芳香族性環電流と反芳香族性環電流

Aromatic and antiaromatic ring currents in a molecular nanoring p.200

By investigating ring currents, a six-porphyrin nanoring molecule is shown to be antiaromatic in its 4+ oxidation state and aromatic in its 6+ oxidation state.

doi: 10.1038/nature20798

気候科学:アマゾン低地における過去4万5000年にわたる水文気候の変化

Hydroclimate changes across the Amazon lowlands over the past 45,000 years p.204

Oxygen isotope records derived from stalagmites in the eastern Amazon reveal that rainfall was about half of today’s during the Last Glacial Maximum but half again as much during the mid-Holocene, broadly coinciding with global changes in temperature and carbon dioxide.

doi: 10.1038/nature20787

進化学:シムモリウム目軟骨魚類の脳頭蓋とギンザメ類の起源

A symmoriiform chondrichthyan braincase and the origin of chimaeroid fishes p.208

The chimaeroids are one of the four principal divisions of the living jawed vertebrates and their evolutionary origins have been hard to discern; here, the study of a skull of the extinct shark Dwykaselachus shows that the chimaeroids nest among the once fairly common and widespread symmoriiforms.

doi: 10.1038/nature20806

ゲノミクス:セイヨウトネリコのゲノム塩基配列と遺伝的多様性

Genome sequence and genetic diversity of European ash trees OPEN p.212

The genome sequence and genetic diversity of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees reveals the species’ varying susceptibility to ash dieback.

doi: 10.1038/nature20786

構造生物学:アルツハイマー病の臨床サブタイプから明らかになったアミロイドβ原繊維の構造の多様性

Structural variation in amyloid-β fibrils from Alzheimer's disease clinical subtypes p.217

Aggregation of amyloid-β peptides into fibrils or other self-assembled states is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Fibrils formed in vitro by 40- and 42-residue amyloid-β peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42) are polymorphic, with variations in molecular structure that depend on fibril growth conditions. Recent experiments suggest that variations in amyloid-β fibril structure in vivo may correlate with variations in Alzheimer’s disease phenotype, in analogy to distinct prion strains that are associated with different clinical and pathological phenotypes. Here we investigate correlations between structural variation and Alzheimer’s disease phenotype using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) measurements on Aβ40 and Aβ42 fibrils prepared by seeded growth from extracts of Alzheimer’s disease brain cortex. We compared two atypical Alzheimer’s disease clinical subtypes—the rapidly progressive form (r-AD) and the posterior cortical atrophy variant (PCA-AD)—with a typical prolonged-duration form (t-AD). On the basis of ssNMR data from 37 cortical tissue samples from 18 individuals, we find that a single Aβ40 fibril structure is most abundant in samples from patients with t-AD and PCA-AD, whereas Aβ40 fibrils from r-AD samples exhibit a significantly greater proportion of additional structures. Data for Aβ42 fibrils indicate structural heterogeneity in most samples from all patient categories, with at least two prevalent structures. These results demonstrate the existence of a specific predominant Aβ40 fibril structure in t-AD and PCA-AD, suggest that r-AD may relate to additional fibril structures and indicate that there is a qualitative difference between Aβ40 and Aβ42 aggregates in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature20814

心血管疾患:低酸素が成体マウスでの心臓再生を誘導する

Hypoxia induces heart regeneration in adult mice p.222

A pathway triggered by chronic severe hypoxia boosts regeneration of injured hearts in adult mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature20173

分子生物学:mTORC1と筋肉の再生はLINC00961にコードされるSPARポリペプチドによって調節される

mTORC1 and muscle regeneration are regulated by the LINC00961-encoded SPAR polypeptide p.228

The polypeptide SPAR is encoded by a long non-coding RNA, localizes to the late endosome and lysosome, and regulates muscle regeneration by inhibiting mTORC1.

doi: 10.1038/nature21034

がん:ゲノム規模のin vivoスクリーニングから見つかった転移性コロニー形成の新たな宿主調節因子

Genome-wide in vivo screen identifies novel host regulators of metastatic colonization p.233

Screening mutant mouse lines using a genome-wide in vivo assay identifies microenvironmental regulators of metastatic colonization and defines SPNS2 as an important mediator of lung colonization.

doi: 10.1038/nature20792

遺伝学:in situの空間配置と相関するDNA切断マッピングによって明らかになった可変的クロマチン構造

Variable chromatin structure revealed by in situ spatially correlated DNA cleavage mapping p.237

The first genome-wide map of human chromatin conformation at the 1–3 nucleosome (50–500 base pair) scale, obtained using ionizing radiation-induced spatially correlated cleavage of DNA with sequencing (RICC-seq), which identifies spatially proximal DNA–DNA contacts.

doi: 10.1038/nature20781

構造生物学:混合・注入XFEL連続結晶構造解析によって得られたリボスイッチRNAの各反応段階の構造

Structures of riboswitch RNA reaction states by mix-and-inject XFEL serial crystallography p.242

Femtosecond XFEL crystallography is used to identify dynamic changes in the adenine riboswitch aptamer domain, with at least four states identified in real time, two in the apo form before binding and two with the ligand bound.

doi: 10.1038/nature20599

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