Volume 531 Number 7595



Cultural conundrum p.413

The Chinese government’s professed commitment to transparency and responsiveness has had a rocky start. That bodes ill for the desire to attract the best science brains from around the world.

doi: 10.1038/531413a


Siren call p.413

Now that gravitational waves have been discovered, it is time to put them to use.

doi: 10.1038/531413b


Power of the pen p.414

Scientists must unite to stop Turkey from removing the right to freedom of expression.

doi: 10.1038/531414a



Massive network of robotic ocean probes gets smart upgrade p.421

Initiatives aim to measure global warming’s impact on high seas and deep currents.

doi: 10.1038/531421a


Mobile-phone health apps deliver data bounty p.422

Smartphone programs allow researchers to recruit large numbers of participants and monitor them in real time.

doi: 10.1038/531422a


What China’s latest five-year plan means for science p.424

Oceanography, brain science and stem cells among research fields that look set to grow.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19590


China’s carbon emissions could peak sooner than forecast p.425

Country's 13th Five-Year Plan advances a broad goal to phase down coal and expand renewable energy.

doi: 10.1038/531425a


Scientists clash over lifespan of captive killer whales p.426

Two conflicting studies are at centre of row.

doi: 10.1038/531426a

News Features


The black-hole collision that reshaped physics p.428


doi: 10.1038/531428a


The secret lives of jellyfish p.432


doi: 10.1038/531432a

News & Views


Alzheimer's disease: Lost memories found p.450


doi: 10.1038/nature17312


Animal migration: Dispersion explains declines p.451


doi: 10.1038/531451a


Organic chemistry: No double bond left behind p.453


doi: 10.1038/531453a


Microbial oceanography: Viral strategies at sea p.454


doi: 10.1038/nature17303


Planetary science: Signs of a wandering Moon p.455


doi: 10.1038/531455a


Behavioural economics: Corruption corrupts p.456


doi: 10.1038/nature17307



Direct synthesis of Z-alkenyl halides through catalytic cross-metathesis p.459

One shortcoming of olefin metathesis has been that acyclic alkenyl halides could not be generated efficiently and stereoselectively; but now halo-substituted molybdenum alkylidene species are shown to be able to participate in high-yielding olefin metathesis reactions that afford acyclic 1,2-disubstituted Z-alkenyl halides.

doi: 10.1038/nature17396


Lytic to temperate switching of viral communities p.466

An analysis of 24 coral reef viromes challenges the view that lytic phage are believed to predominate when the density of their hosts increase and shows instead that lysogeny is more important at high host densities; the authors also show that this model is consistent with predator–prey dynamics in a range of other ecosystems, such as animal-associated, sediment and soil systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature17193


Deletions linked to TP53 loss drive cancer through p53-independent mechanisms p.471

The loss of the TP53 gene is often involved in the development of human cancer; here, the deletion of other genes in the vicinity is shown also to contribute to cancer progression in a mouse model.

doi: 10.1038/nature17157



Acceleration of petaelectronvolt protons in the Galactic Centre p.476

Deep γ-ray observations of the Galactic Centre with arcminute angular resolution show traces of petaelectronvolt protons within the central ten parsecs of our Galaxy; the accelerator of these particles could have provided a substantial contribution to Galactic cosmic rays in the past.

doi: 10.1038/nature17147


Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen p.480

Polar hydrogen deposits on the Moon provide evidence that its spin axis has shifted; analysis of the locations of these deposits and of the lunar figure suggests that the shift occurred as a result of changes in the Moon’s moments of inertia caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region.

doi: 10.1038/nature17166


Modes of surface premelting in colloidal crystals composed of attractive particles p.485

Incomplete premelting at the edges of monolayer colloidal crystals is triggered by a bulk solid–solid phase transition and truncated by a mechanical instability that induces homogeneous bulk melting of the crystal; these observations challenge existing theories of two-dimensional melting.

doi: 10.1038/nature16987


On-surface synthesis of graphene nanoribbons with zigzag edge topology p.489

Synthesis of atomically precise zigzag edges in graphene nanoribbons is demonstrated using a bottom-up strategy based on surface-assisted arrangement and reaction of precursor monomers; these nanoribbons have edge-localized states with large energy splittings.

doi: 10.1038/nature17151


The past, present and future of African dust p.493

Variability in North African dust dispersal, which affects air quality and the amount of radiation reaching the ground, is captured by the wind patterns over the Sahara; climate models suggest a downward trend in dust concentration with increasing greenhouse gas emissions.

doi: 10.1038/nature17149


Intrinsic honesty and the prevalence of rule violations across societies p.496

To test whether there is a relationship between the level of national corruption and the intrinsic honesty of individuals, a behavioural test of the honesty of people from 23 countries was conducted; the authors found that high national scores on an index of rule-breaking are linked with reduced personal honesty.

doi: 10.1038/nature17160


Impact of meat and Lower Palaeolithic food processing techniques on chewing in humans p.500

The genus Homo had considerably smaller cheek teeth, chewing muscles and jaws than earlier hominins; here, the introduction of raw but processed meat, from which energy could more easily be extracted, is shown to have possibly been responsible for this change.

doi: 10.1038/nature16990


Nuclear DNA sequences from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins p.504

Nuclear DNA sequences from Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins show they were more closely related to Neanderthals than to Denisovans, and indicate a population divergence between Neanderthals and Denisovans that predates 430,000 years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature17405


Memory retrieval by activating engram cells in mouse models of early Alzheimer’s disease p.508

Experiments in transgenic mouse models of early Alzheimer’s disease show that the amnesia seen at this stage of the disease is probably caused by a problem with memory retrieval from the hippocampus rather than an encoding defect.

doi: 10.1038/nature17172


Visualization of immediate immune responses to pioneer metastatic cells in the lung p.513

Tracing the fate of circulating tumour cells by intravital two-photon lung imaging shows that tumours produce microparticles as they arrive and these migrate along the lung vasculature and are mostly taken up by interstitial myeloid cells, in a process that contributes to metastatic seeding; a minor subset of microparticles is engulfed by conventional dendritic cells, which are thought to contribute to the initiation of an anti-tumour immune response in lung-draining lymph nodes.

doi: 10.1038/nature16985

がん治療:長鎖非コードRNA SAMMSONに対する黒色腫の依存性

Melanoma addiction to the long non-coding RNA SAMMSON p.518

A known oncogene, MITF, resides in a region of chromosome 3 that is amplified in melanomas and associated with poor prognosis; now, a long non-coding RNA gene, SAMMSON, is shown to also lie in this region, to also act as a melanoma-specific survival oncogene, and to be a promising therapeutic target for anti-melanoma therapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature17161


The amino acid sensor GCN2 controls gut inflammation by inhibiting inflammasome activation p.523

The GCN2 kinase is shown to have a protective role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation during amino acid starvation in a mouse model of colitis.

doi: 10.1038/nature17186


PGC1α drives NAD biosynthesis linking oxidative metabolism to renal protection p.528

PGC1α protects against kidney injury by upregulating enzymes that enhance nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and driving local accumulation of the fatty acid breakdown product β-hydroxybutyrate, which leads to increased production of the renoprotective prostaglandin E2.

doi: 10.1038/nature17184


Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of reducing polyketide synthases p.533

A hybrid crystal structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis mycocerosic acid synthase, a multienzyme involved in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial branched-chain fatty acids, exemplifies the organization of fully-reducing polyketide synthases.

doi: 10.1038/nature16993

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