目次

Editorials

外国のNGOへの取り締まりを強化しようという中国の方針は、科学協力の妨げになる。

Undue burdens p.127

Proposed controls on foreign operations in China are a threat to scientific collaboration.

doi: 10.1038/522127b

Full Text

ヒトの性的指向に関する科学的解明は、同性愛を犯罪と定めているアフリカ諸国の政策と対決する一歩になる。

Sex and the law p.127

A report from South Africa on the science of human sexuality and its implications for policy-making brings African countries a step closer to confronting laws that criminalize homosexuality.

doi: 10.1038/522127a

Full Text

世界各国は、先進7か国(G7)が提案した厳しい温室効果ガス排出目標を受け入れるべきだ。

Tough targets p.128

Concrete goals set out by the G7 nations lay the groundwork for a climate accord.

doi: 10.1038/522128a

Full Text

News

南アフリカ科学アカデミーが、同性愛を禁じる法律の科学的根拠を否定する報告を。

African academics challenge homophobic laws p.135

Scientific report demolishes assertions used to back criminalization of homosexuality.

doi: 10.1038/522135a

Full Text

頭蓋内に注入できる網状のポリマーによって、個々のニューロンの働きが追跡可能に。

Injectable brain implant spies on individual neurons p.137

Electronic mesh has potential to unravel workings of mammalian brain.

doi: 10.1038/522137a

Full Text

米国ボストンのバイオテク企業・研究室が集中する地域が、スペース不足に。

Start-ups fight for a place in Boston’s biotech hub p.138

Competition for lab space threatens Kendall Square’s innovative spark.

doi: 10.1038/522138a

Full Text

韓国でのMERS(中東呼吸器症候群)流行で、研究不足が浮き彫りに。

South Korean MERS outbreak spotlights lack of research p.139

How Middle East respiratory syndrome jumps from animals to humans remains a puzzle.

doi: 10.1038/522139a

Full Text

古代人ゲノムを大量に解析する新たな手法によって、ヨーロッパの技術、言語、食物の起源に新たな光が。

DNA data explosion lights up the Bronze Age p.140

Population-scale studies suggest that migrants spread steppe language and technology.

doi: 10.1038/522140a

Full Text

News Features

防衛:軍事・生物科学コンプレックス

The Pentagon’s gamble on brain implants, bionic limbs and combat exoskeletons p.142

米国防総省は生物学研究を強力に後押ししているが、科学者による相互評価のない高リスクなやり方に疑問も出ている。

doi: 10.1038/522142a

Full Text

農業:スーパー・ベジタブル

The rise of Africa’s super vegetables p.146

栄養的・環境的に優れたアフリカ原産の野菜類に関心が高まっており、この研究を進めるジョモ・ケニヤッタ農工大学(ケニア)のMary Abukutsa-Onyangoを、ケニア原産野菜の母と呼ぶ人もいる。

doi: 10.1038/522146a

Full Text

News & Views

マラリア:致死的寄生虫を侵入させるためのマスターロック

Malaria: A master lock for deadly parasites p.158

赤血球の細胞表面で発現されるCD55タンパク質が熱帯熱マラリア原虫(Plasmodium falciparum)が細胞に感染するのに不可欠の受容体であることが、RNA干渉スクリーニングによって突き止められた。

doi: 10.1038/522158a

Full Text

細胞生物学:核での難問の解決法

Cell biology: Nuclear dilemma resolved p.159

細胞分裂が終わると、核の周囲の膜が融合して細胞に含まれる染色体を包み込む。この過程がESCRT-IIIタンパク質複合体によって調節されていることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14527

Full Text

ナノフォトニクス:ハイパボリックチップの明るい未来

Nanophotonics: Bright future for hyperbolic chips p.160

光を回折せずにナノスケールで伝搬させることができるなど、ハイパボリックメタマテリアルが持つ珍しい性質が、二次元デバイスで実現された。これは、改良型フォトニック回路の先触れとなるものだ。

doi: 10.1038/522160a

Full Text

細胞生物学:大爆発を起こさせる微小核

Cell biology: The micronucleus gets its big break p.162

大規模な染色体再編成である染色体粉砕(クロモスリプシス)は複数種のがんで見られる。単一細胞の画像化と塩基配列解読により、微小核と呼ばれる異常な細胞構造の内部でこの現象が起き得ることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14528

Full Text

気候科学:退氷期の間はタイミングが最重要

Climate science: Timing is everything during deglaciations p.163

北大西洋と地中海のさまざまな気候記録を連携させることは、最終間氷期の間に起こった海水準上昇をより大きくしたと考えられる機構を突き止めるのに役立った。

doi: 10.1038/522163a

Full Text

ヒトの進化:ステップ由来の古代DNAが踏み込んだ言語論争

Human evolution: Ancient DNA steps into the language debate p.164

古代のヒトDNAについての2つの研究によって、青銅器時代のヒト集団は広い範囲に展開していたことが分かった。これはインド・ヨーロッパ語族の起源と広がりに関する、長く続いてきた論争を解決する手掛かりを与えるものになりそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/522164a

Full Text

Articles

集団遺伝学:青銅器時代のユーラシアの集団ゲノミクス

Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia p.167

An analysis of 101 ancient human genomes from the Bronze Age (3000–1000 ʙᴄ) reveals large-scale population migrations in Eurasia consistent with the spread of Indo-European languages; individuals frequently had light skin pigmentation but were not lactose tolerant.

doi: 10.1038/nature14507

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

幹細胞:基底状態の腸幹細胞のクローニングと多様性

Cloning and variation of ground state intestinal stem cells p.173

Novel technology to rapidly clone patient-specific, ‘ground state’ stem cells of columnar epithelia reveals their proliferative potential, remarkably precise and origin-dependent lineage commitment as well as genomic stability, despite extensive culturing, thereby skirting limitations associated with pluripotent stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature14484

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

細胞生物学:微小核でのDNA損傷による染色体粉砕

Chromothripsis from DNA damage in micronuclei p.179

The mechanism for chromothripsis, “shattered” chromosomes that can be observed in cancer cells, is unknown; here, using live-cell imaging and single-cell sequencing, chromothripsis is shown to occur after a chromosome is isolated into a micronucleus, an abnormal nuclear structure.

doi: 10.1038/nature14493

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

Letters

惑星科学:予想外に遠方まで土星のフェーベ環を支配する小さな粒子

Small particles dominate Saturn’s Phoebe ring to surprisingly large distances p.185

Infrared imaging reveals all of Saturn’s faint, outermost ring, showing that it is composed principally of small dust particles and suggesting that particle temperatures are increased because of the radiative inefficiency of the smallest grains.

doi: 10.1038/nature14476

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

太陽物理学:太陽大気加熱を駆動する小規模ダイナモ磁場

Small-scale dynamo magnetism as the driver for heating the solar atmosphere p.188

A model of the heating of the quiet Sun, in which magnetic fields are generated by a subphotospheric fluid dynamo intrinsically connected to granulation, shows fields expanding into the chromosphere, where plasma is heated at the rate required to match observations by small-scale eruptions that release magnetic energy and drive sonic motions, while the corona is heated by the dissipation of Alfvén waves.

doi: 10.1038/nature14478

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

材料科学:可視光周波数で機能するハイパボリックメタ表面

Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface p.192

Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurfaces defined on single-crystal silver exhibit negative refraction and diffraction-free propagation, as well as strong, dispersion-dependent spin–orbit coupling for propagating surface plasmon polaritons, with device performance greatly exceeding those of previous bulk metamaterial demonstrations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14477

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

気候科学:バイポーラーシーソーが最終間氷期の海水準を支配する

Bipolar seesaw control on last interglacial sea level p.197

A synthesis of new and existing data allows Heinrich Stadial 11 (HS11), a prominent Northern Hemisphere cold event, to be linked to the timing of peak sea-level rise during glacial termination T-II, whereas rapid sea-level rise in T-I is shown to clearly post-date Heinrich Stadial 1, so fundamentally different mechanisms seem to be at work during glacial terminations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14499

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

岩石学:リソスフェア–アセノスフェア系の電気的異方性に対する実験的制約

Experimental constraints on the electrical anisotropy of the lithosphere–asthenosphere system p.202

Electrical anisotropy measurements at high temperatures and quasi-hydrostatic pressures on previously deformed olivine plus melt samples show that electrical conductivity is much higher in the direction of deformation; this is confirmed with a layered electrical model of the asthenosphere and lithosphere that reproduces existing field data.

doi: 10.1038/nature14502

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

集団遺伝学:ステップからの大移動がヨーロッパでのインド・ヨーロッパ語族の成因の1つとなった

Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe p.207

A genome-wide analysis of 69 ancient Europeans reveals the history of population migrations around the time that Indo-European languages arose in Europe, when there was a large migration into Europe from the Eurasian steppe in the east (providing a genetic ancestry still present in Europeans today); these findings support a ‘steppe origin’ hypothesis for how some Indo-European languages arose.

doi: 10.1038/nature14317

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

生理学:動力源のない外骨格を使って、ヒトの歩行のエネルギーコストを低減させる

Reducing the energy cost of human walking using an unpowered exoskeleton p.212

The attachment of a simple, unpowered, mechanical exoskeleton to the foot and ankle results in a net saving of 7% of the metabolic energy expended in human walking.

doi: 10.1038/nature14288

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

幹細胞:薬剤による内在性幹細胞の調節がin vivoでの機能的な再ミエリン化を促進する

Drug-based modulation of endogenous stem cells promotes functional remyelination in vivo p.216

Two drugs, miconazole and clobetasol, have functions that modulate differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells directly, enhance remyelination, and significantly reduce disease severity in mouse models of multiple sclerosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14335

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

幹細胞:ヒトの着床前胚および多能性細胞における内在性レトロウイルスの再活性化

Intrinsic retroviral reactivation in human preimplantation embryos and pluripotent cells p.221

The human endogenous retrovirus HERVK is normally silenced, but here the surprising discovery is made that in early human embryo development it is expressed, producing retroviral-like particles.

doi: 10.1038/nature14308

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

発生生物学:心外膜の再生は心臓流出路とヘッジホッグシグナル伝達により誘導される

Epicardial regeneration is guided by cardiac outflow tract and Hedgehog signalling p.226

Using a genetic approach in zebrafish, the mesothelial covering of the heart—the epicardium—is shown to have a high regenerative ability after injury, a process that is driven by Hedgehog signalling originating from the outflow tract.

doi: 10.1038/nature14325

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

細胞生物学:spastinとESCRT-IIIは有糸分裂紡錘体の解体と核膜の融合を協調させる

Spastin and ESCRT-III coordinate mitotic spindle disassembly and nuclear envelope sealing p.231

ESCRT-III, a protein complex best known for membrane constriction and sealing during various cellular processes, mediates reassembly of the nuclear envelope during late anaphase.

doi: 10.1038/nature14408

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

細胞生物学:ESCRT-IIIは核膜の再形成を制御する

ESCRT-III controls nuclear envelope reformation p.236

The ESCRT-III complex is implicated in the reformation of the nuclear envelope; the CHMP2A component of ESCRT-III is directed to the forming nuclear envelope through classical ESCRT-assembly mechanisms, with the help of the p97 complex component UFD1, and provides an activity essential for nuclear envelope reformation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14503

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

発生生物学:ヒストンH3.3は胚性幹細胞で内在性レトロウイルス配列のサイレンシングに必要である

Histone H3.3 is required for endogenous retroviral element silencing in embryonic stem cells p.240

Transposable elements in mammalian genomes need to be silenced to avoid detrimental genome instability; here, the histone variant H3.3 is shown to have an important role in silencing endogenous retroviral elements.

doi: 10.1038/nature14345

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

「Journal home」に戻る

プライバシーマーク制度