Undue burdens p.127

Proposed controls on foreign operations in China are a threat to scientific collaboration.

doi: 10.1038/522127b

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Sex and the law p.127

A report from South Africa on the science of human sexuality and its implications for policy-making brings African countries a step closer to confronting laws that criminalize homosexuality.

doi: 10.1038/522127a

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Tough targets p.128

Concrete goals set out by the G7 nations lay the groundwork for a climate accord.

doi: 10.1038/522128a

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African academics challenge homophobic laws p.135

Scientific report demolishes assertions used to back criminalization of homosexuality.

doi: 10.1038/522135a

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Injectable brain implant spies on individual neurons p.137

Electronic mesh has potential to unravel workings of mammalian brain.

doi: 10.1038/522137a

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Start-ups fight for a place in Boston’s biotech hub p.138

Competition for lab space threatens Kendall Square’s innovative spark.

doi: 10.1038/522138a

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South Korean MERS outbreak spotlights lack of research p.139

How Middle East respiratory syndrome jumps from animals to humans remains a puzzle.

doi: 10.1038/522139a

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DNA data explosion lights up the Bronze Age p.140

Population-scale studies suggest that migrants spread steppe language and technology.

doi: 10.1038/522140a

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News Features


The Pentagon’s gamble on brain implants, bionic limbs and combat exoskeletons p.142


doi: 10.1038/522142a

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The rise of Africa’s super vegetables p.146

栄養的・環境的に優れたアフリカ原産の野菜類に関心が高まっており、この研究を進めるジョモ・ケニヤッタ農工大学(ケニア)のMary Abukutsa-Onyangoを、ケニア原産野菜の母と呼ぶ人もいる。

doi: 10.1038/522146a

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News & Views


Malaria: A master lock for deadly parasites p.158

赤血球の細胞表面で発現されるCD55タンパク質が熱帯熱マラリア原虫(Plasmodium falciparum)が細胞に感染するのに不可欠の受容体であることが、RNA干渉スクリーニングによって突き止められた。

doi: 10.1038/522158a

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Cell biology: Nuclear dilemma resolved p.159


doi: 10.1038/nature14527

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Nanophotonics: Bright future for hyperbolic chips p.160


doi: 10.1038/522160a

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Cell biology: The micronucleus gets its big break p.162


doi: 10.1038/nature14528

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Climate science: Timing is everything during deglaciations p.163


doi: 10.1038/522163a

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Human evolution: Ancient DNA steps into the language debate p.164


doi: 10.1038/522164a

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Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia p.167

An analysis of 101 ancient human genomes from the Bronze Age (3000–1000 ʙᴄ) reveals large-scale population migrations in Eurasia consistent with the spread of Indo-European languages; individuals frequently had light skin pigmentation but were not lactose tolerant.

doi: 10.1038/nature14507

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Cloning and variation of ground state intestinal stem cells p.173

Novel technology to rapidly clone patient-specific, ‘ground state’ stem cells of columnar epithelia reveals their proliferative potential, remarkably precise and origin-dependent lineage commitment as well as genomic stability, despite extensive culturing, thereby skirting limitations associated with pluripotent stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature14484

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Chromothripsis from DNA damage in micronuclei p.179

The mechanism for chromothripsis, “shattered” chromosomes that can be observed in cancer cells, is unknown; here, using live-cell imaging and single-cell sequencing, chromothripsis is shown to occur after a chromosome is isolated into a micronucleus, an abnormal nuclear structure.

doi: 10.1038/nature14493

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Small particles dominate Saturn’s Phoebe ring to surprisingly large distances p.185

Infrared imaging reveals all of Saturn’s faint, outermost ring, showing that it is composed principally of small dust particles and suggesting that particle temperatures are increased because of the radiative inefficiency of the smallest grains.

doi: 10.1038/nature14476

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Small-scale dynamo magnetism as the driver for heating the solar atmosphere p.188

A model of the heating of the quiet Sun, in which magnetic fields are generated by a subphotospheric fluid dynamo intrinsically connected to granulation, shows fields expanding into the chromosphere, where plasma is heated at the rate required to match observations by small-scale eruptions that release magnetic energy and drive sonic motions, while the corona is heated by the dissipation of Alfvén waves.

doi: 10.1038/nature14478

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Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface p.192

Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurfaces defined on single-crystal silver exhibit negative refraction and diffraction-free propagation, as well as strong, dispersion-dependent spin–orbit coupling for propagating surface plasmon polaritons, with device performance greatly exceeding those of previous bulk metamaterial demonstrations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14477

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Bipolar seesaw control on last interglacial sea level p.197

A synthesis of new and existing data allows Heinrich Stadial 11 (HS11), a prominent Northern Hemisphere cold event, to be linked to the timing of peak sea-level rise during glacial termination T-II, whereas rapid sea-level rise in T-I is shown to clearly post-date Heinrich Stadial 1, so fundamentally different mechanisms seem to be at work during glacial terminations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14499

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Experimental constraints on the electrical anisotropy of the lithosphere–asthenosphere system p.202

Electrical anisotropy measurements at high temperatures and quasi-hydrostatic pressures on previously deformed olivine plus melt samples show that electrical conductivity is much higher in the direction of deformation; this is confirmed with a layered electrical model of the asthenosphere and lithosphere that reproduces existing field data.

doi: 10.1038/nature14502

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Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe p.207

A genome-wide analysis of 69 ancient Europeans reveals the history of population migrations around the time that Indo-European languages arose in Europe, when there was a large migration into Europe from the Eurasian steppe in the east (providing a genetic ancestry still present in Europeans today); these findings support a ‘steppe origin’ hypothesis for how some Indo-European languages arose.

doi: 10.1038/nature14317

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Reducing the energy cost of human walking using an unpowered exoskeleton p.212

The attachment of a simple, unpowered, mechanical exoskeleton to the foot and ankle results in a net saving of 7% of the metabolic energy expended in human walking.

doi: 10.1038/nature14288

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幹細胞:薬剤による内在性幹細胞の調節がin vivoでの機能的な再ミエリン化を促進する

Drug-based modulation of endogenous stem cells promotes functional remyelination in vivo p.216

Two drugs, miconazole and clobetasol, have functions that modulate differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells directly, enhance remyelination, and significantly reduce disease severity in mouse models of multiple sclerosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14335

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Intrinsic retroviral reactivation in human preimplantation embryos and pluripotent cells p.221

The human endogenous retrovirus HERVK is normally silenced, but here the surprising discovery is made that in early human embryo development it is expressed, producing retroviral-like particles.

doi: 10.1038/nature14308

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Epicardial regeneration is guided by cardiac outflow tract and Hedgehog signalling p.226

Using a genetic approach in zebrafish, the mesothelial covering of the heart—the epicardium—is shown to have a high regenerative ability after injury, a process that is driven by Hedgehog signalling originating from the outflow tract.

doi: 10.1038/nature14325

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Spastin and ESCRT-III coordinate mitotic spindle disassembly and nuclear envelope sealing p.231

ESCRT-III, a protein complex best known for membrane constriction and sealing during various cellular processes, mediates reassembly of the nuclear envelope during late anaphase.

doi: 10.1038/nature14408

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ESCRT-III controls nuclear envelope reformation p.236

The ESCRT-III complex is implicated in the reformation of the nuclear envelope; the CHMP2A component of ESCRT-III is directed to the forming nuclear envelope through classical ESCRT-assembly mechanisms, with the help of the p97 complex component UFD1, and provides an activity essential for nuclear envelope reformation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14503

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Histone H3.3 is required for endogenous retroviral element silencing in embryonic stem cells p.240

Transposable elements in mammalian genomes need to be silenced to avoid detrimental genome instability; here, the histone variant H3.3 is shown to have an important role in silencing endogenous retroviral elements.

doi: 10.1038/nature14345

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