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Editorials

アフリカ版CDC(疾病対策センター)の設立は歓迎すべき意欲的な計画だが、期待に応えるにはリソースの充実が必要だ。

Highway to health p.407

Africa has an ambitious and welcome plan for a continent-wide centre for disease control — but if the agency is to live up to its promise, it will need substantially better resources.

doi: 10.1038/520407a

「エコモダニスト宣言」では、持続可能な開発の見直しがうたわれているが、目指すゴールは変わっていない。

Decoupled ideals p.407

‘Ecomodernist Manifesto’ reframes sustainable development, but the goal remains the same.

doi: 10.1038/520407b

ムーアの法則は物理的限界に近づいており、この法則の寿命を延ばすには全く新しい物理学が必要だ。

More from Moore p.408

Moore's law is approaching physical limits: truly novel physics will be needed to extend it.

doi: 10.1038/520408a

News

米国のロイヤル島に生息するオオカミがついに3頭となり、57年続いた生態調査研究におそらく終止符が。

Wolf decline threatens iconic island study p.415

Just three animals remain on Isle Royale, spelling probable end of 57-year ecology project.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17263

ネオニコチノイド系農薬がミツバチに及ぼす影響の実態が、より鮮明に。

Bee studies stir up pesticide debate p.416

The threat that neonicotinoids pose to bees becomes clearer.

doi: 10.1038/520416a

ミエリン鞘の修復を促進する薬が、多発性硬化症に有効との期待が。

Drug that boosts nerve signals offers hope for multiple sclerosis p.417

Trialled antibody treatment thought to work by renewing the protective coating of neurons.

doi: 10.1038/520417a

米国オクラホマ州で多発する地震の原因が、水圧破砕法による排水の地下注入にあることが明らかに。

Race to unravel Oklahoma’s artificial quakes p.418

Earthquakes linked to oil and gas operations prompt further research into human-induced seismic hazards.

doi: 10.1038/520418a

NASAの、生命居住可能惑星の探査に、気候学者も参加へ。

Climate scientists join search for alien Earths p.420

NASA initiative seeks to bolster interdisciplinary science in hunt for extraterrestrial life.

doi: 10.1038/520420a

330万年前の最古の石器が発見され、この作り手がヒト属以前の原人である可能性も。

Oldest stone tools raise questions about their creators p.421

The 3.3-million-year-old implements predate the first members of the Homo genus.

doi: 10.1038/520421a

News Features

法科学:土壌を探る

Forensic science: The soil sleuth p.422

容疑者の靴などに付着した土を証拠として犯罪捜査に役立てる法地質学の先駆的研究者Lorna Dawson(英国ジェームズ・ハットン研究所)に、話を聞いた。

doi: 10.1038/520422a

化学:分離の壁

Chemistry: Degrees of separation p.426

中国の独占状態にある希土類元素を、原石や廃棄物から効率よく抽出、再利用する低コストの方法を開発しようと、研究が続いている。

doi: 10.1038/520426a

News & Views

年代測定技術:過去を照らし出す

Dating techniques: Illuminating the past p.438

光学的年代測定技術が最初に取り上げられたのは30年前のことで、それ以来、過去50万年間に起こった事象の研究が一変した。光学的年代測定を実際に行っている2人の専門家が、その影響を評価し、将来像を考察している。

doi: 10.1038/520438a

構造生物学:痛みを感知するTRPA1チャネルの構造解明

Structural biology: Pain-sensing TRPA1 channel resolved p.439

TRPA1イオンチャネルは侵害性の化合物に反応して疼痛感知経路を活性化する。TRPA1の構造が解明され、このチャネルが機能する仕組みについての手掛かりが得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature14383

オプトメカニクス:音の量子粒に耳を傾ける

Optomechanics: Listening to quantum grains of sound p.441

オプトメカニカルデバイスを使って、機械的振動の量子、言い換えれば振動の「粒」を光学的手法によって数えることが可能になった。このシステムは音響学や熱工学の分野に新しい可能性をもたらすかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/520441a

地球科学:河川争奪による景観の逆転

Earth science: Landscape inversion by stream piracy p.442

モデルの1つでは、山の活発な変形が原因となって、河川網の再編成が休みなく続くと考えられていて、これはごつごつした山岳地帯の高地にほぼ平坦な地表が形成されるという一見奇妙な事態に対する説明となっている。

doi: 10.1038/520442a

感覚系:皮質オキシトシンの光と陰

Sensory systems: The yin and yang of cortical oxytocin p.444

雌マウスは幼若マウスが窮地に陥った時の呼び声に応答することを学習できる。この能力が脳の皮質にある左側の聴覚野で起こる、オキシトシンというホルモンによるシグナル伝達を介して向上することが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14386

再生生物学:ニューレグリン1が心筋を作る

Regenerative biology: Neuregulin 1 makes heart muscle p.445

増殖因子のニューレグリン1とその受容体タンパク質であるERBB2が関わるシグナル伝達経路が増強されると、筋細胞の生成が促進されることが、ゼブラフィッシュ、マウスとヒト幼児の心臓組織を使った3つの研究により明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/520445a

生態学:祖先の共有から病気の頻度を予測

Ecology: Shared ancestry predicts disease levels p.446

宿主の密度のような生態学的要因は、疾病発生率の重要な予測因子である。だが、宿主群集の進化の歴史と近縁関係も、また別の重要な決定因子であるようだ。

doi: 10.1038/520446a

Articles

社会行動学:オキシトシンは皮質で抑制のバランスを取ることで母性行動を可能にする

Oxytocin enables maternal behaviour by balancing cortical inhibition p.499

A study of pup retrieval behaviour in mice shows that oxytocin modulates cortical responses to pup calls specifically in the left auditory cortex; in virgin females, call-evoked responses were enhanced, thus increasing their salience, by pairing oxytocin delivery in the left auditory cortex with the calls, suggesting enhancement was a result of balancing the magnitude and timing of inhibition with excitation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14402

分子生物学:CRISPRによる獲得免疫過程の偏りは外来DNAの獲得に対する選択性を説明する

CRISPR adaptation biases explain preference for acquisition of foreign DNA p.505

In the bacterial immunity system CRISPR, spacer acquisition is facilitated near replication-termination regions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14302

構造生物学:TRPA1イオンチャネルの構造から示唆される調節機構

Structure of the TRPA1 ion channel suggests regulatory mechanisms p.511

The high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy structure of the full-length human TRPA1 ion channel is presented; the structure reveals a unique ankyrin repeat domain arrangement, a tetrameric coiled-coil in the centre of the channel that acts as a binding site for inositol hexakisphosphate, an outer poor domain with two pore helices, and a new drug binding site, findings that collectively provide mechanistic insight into TRPA1 regulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14367

Letters

天文学:大質量星の形成領域の磁場によって調整される自己相似的な分裂

Self-similar fragmentation regulated by magnetic fields in a region forming massive stars p.518

Polarimetric observations of magnetic-field orientations in a filamentary molecular cloud forming massive stars shows that the magnetic field strongly affects fragmentation in the region.

doi: 10.1038/nature14291

オプトメカニクス:ナノ機械共振器のフォノン計数と強度干渉測定

Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator p.522

A silicon nanometre-scale mechanical resonator, patterned to couple optical and mechanical resonances, is found to emit photons when optically pumped; photon emission corresponds directly to phonon emission, enabling the phonons to be counted.

doi: 10.1038/nature14349

地球科学:河川網の分断の結果としてin situで形成されている起伏の小さい地形

In situ low-relief landscape formation as a result of river network disruption p.526

Landscapes on Earth retain a record of the tectonic, environmental and climatic history under which they formed. Landscapes tend towards an equilibrium in which rivers attain a stable grade that balances the tectonic production of elevation and with hillslopes that attain a gradient steep enough to transport material to river channels. Equilibrium low-relief surfaces are typically found at low elevations, graded to sea level. However, there are many examples of high-elevation, low-relief surfaces, often referred to as relict landscapes, or as elevated peneplains. These do not grade to sea level and are typically interpreted as uplifted old landscapes, preserving former, more moderate tectonic conditions. Here we test this model of landscape evolution through digital topographic analysis of a set of purportedly relict landscapes on the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, one of the most geographically complex, climatically varied and biologically diverse regions of the world. We find that, in contrast to theory, the purported surfaces are not consistent with progressive establishment of a new, steeper, river grade, and therefore they cannot necessarily be interpreted as a remnant of an old, low relief surface. We propose an alternative model, supported by numerical experiments, in which tectonic deformation has disrupted the regional river network, leaving remnants of it isolated and starved of drainage area and thus unable to balance tectonic uplift. The implication is that the state of low relief with low erosion rate is developing in situ, rather than preserving past erosional conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14354

地球化学:地球と月の偏った後期集積を示すタングステン同位体の証拠

Tungsten isotopic evidence for disproportional late accretion to the Earth and Moon p.530

Examination of three lunar samples reveals that the Moon’s mantle has an excess of the tungsten isotope 182W of about 20 parts per million relative to the present-day Earth’s mantle; this suggests that the two bodies had identical compositions immediately following the formation of the Moon, and that the compositions then diverged as a result of disproportional late accretion of chondritic material to the Earth and Moon.

doi: 10.1038/nature14355

地球化学:月のタングステン同位体によるレイトベニアの証拠

Lunar tungsten isotopic evidence for the late veneer p.534

Precise measurements of the tungsten isotopic composition of lunar rocks show that the Moon exhibits a well-resolved excess of 182W of about 27 parts per million over the present-day Earth’s mantle: this excess is consistent with the expected 182W difference resulting from a late veneer with a total mass and composition inferred from previously measured highly siderophile elements.

doi: 10.1038/nature14360

古生物学:南米の始新世霊長類と、新世界ザルのアフリカ起源

Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys p.538

The discovery of new primates from the Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years.

doi: 10.1038/nature14120

生態学:植物群落では系統発生学的構造と宿主個体数が病害圧力を左右する

Phylogenetic structure and host abundance drive disease pressure in communities p.542

Rare species may have an advantage in a community by suffering less from disease; here it is shown that, because pathogens are shared among species, it is not just the abundance of a particular species but the structure of the whole community that affects exposure to disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature14372

植物科学:植物の水分消費量を、遺伝子操作したアブシジン酸受容体を使って農薬により制御する

Agrochemical control of plant water use using engineered abscisic acid receptors p.545

In response to water shortage, plants produce abscisic acid (ABA), which improves water consumption and stress tolerance; now, a strategy for controlling water use by activating engineered ABA receptors using an existing agrochemical, mandipropamid, is described.

doi: 10.1038/nature14123

幹細胞:休止状態からの脱出はDNA損傷よる造血幹細胞の消耗を引き起こす

Exit from dormancy provokes DNA-damage-induced attrition in haematopoietic stem cells p.549

Here, DNA damage is shown to occur as a direct consequence of inducing haematopoietic stem cells to exit quiescence in response to conditions of stress; in mice with mutations modelling those seen in Fanconi anaemia, this leads to a complete collapse of the haematopoietic system.

doi: 10.1038/nature14131

免疫学:ミトコンドリアDNAのストレスは抗ウイルス自然免疫応答をプライミングする

Mitochondrial DNA stress primes the antiviral innate immune response p.553

Mitochondrial DNA stress potentiates type I interferon responses via activation of the cGAS–STING–IRF3 pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature14156

免疫学:スーパーエンハンサーはT細胞で疾患に関連する調節ノードを形作る

Super-enhancers delineate disease-associated regulatory nodes in T cells p.558

A study of the super-enhancer landscape in three mouse T-helper lymphocyte subsets identifies nodes that have key roles in cell identity, with the locus encoding Bach2, a key negative regulator of effector differentiation, emerging as the most prominent T-cell super-enhancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature14154

細胞生物学:ATG14はオートファゴソームのエンドリソソーム膜への係留と融合を促進する

ATG14 promotes membrane tethering and fusion of autophagosomes to endolysosomes p.563

The essential autophagy mediator ATG14 promotes vesicle fusion by forming homo-oligomers, which bind to a component of the SNARE membrane fusion complex and stabilize this complex on autophagosomes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14147

構造生物学:Cs補正低温電子顕微鏡により < 3 Å分解能で得られた大腸菌リボゾーム–EF-Tu複合体の構造

Structure of the E. coli ribosome–EF-Tu complex at <3 Å resolution by Cs-corrected cryo-EM p.567

Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has recently made significant progress in high-resolution structure determination of macromolecular complexes due to improvements in electron microscopic instrumentation and computational image analysis. However, cryo-EM structures can be highly non-uniform in local resolution and all structures available to date have been limited to resolutions above 3 Å. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome from Escherichia coli in complex with elongation factor Tu, aminoacyl-tRNA and the antibiotic kirromycin at 2.65–2.9 Å resolution using spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected cryo-EM. Overall, the cryo-EM reconstruction at 2.9 Å resolution is comparable to the best-resolved X-ray structure of the E. coli 70S ribosome (2.8 Å), but provides more detailed information (2.65 Å) at the functionally important ribosomal core. The cryo-EM map elucidates for the first time the structure of all 35 rRNA modifications in the bacterial ribosome, explaining their roles in fine-tuning ribosome structure and function and modulating the action of antibiotics. We also obtained atomic models for flexible parts of the ribosome such as ribosomal proteins L9 and L31. The refined cryo-EM-based model presents the currently most complete high-resolution structure of the E. coli ribosome, which demonstrates the power of cryo-EM in structure determination of large and dynamic macromolecular complexes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14275

構造生物学:超原子分解能の結晶構造解析で、[NiFe]ヒドロゲナーゼの水素原子を検出

Hydrogens detected by subatomic resolution protein crystallography in a [NiFe] hydrogenase p.571

A sub-ångström-resolution X-ray crystal structure of [NiFe] hydrogenase, with direct detection of the products of the heterolytic splitting of dihydrogen into a hydride bridging the Ni and Fe and a proton attached to the sulphur of a cysteine ligand.

doi: 10.1038/nature14110

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