Decoupled ideals p.407

‘Ecomodernist Manifesto’ reframes sustainable development, but the goal remains the same.

doi: 10.1038/520407b

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Highway to health p.407

Africa has an ambitious and welcome plan for a continent-wide centre for disease control — but if the agency is to live up to its promise, it will need substantially better resources.

doi: 10.1038/520407a

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More from Moore p.408

Moore's law is approaching physical limits: truly novel physics will be needed to extend it.

doi: 10.1038/520408a

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Wolf decline threatens iconic island study p.415

Just three animals remain on Isle Royale, spelling probable end of 57-year ecology project.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17263

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Bee studies stir up pesticide debate p.416

The threat that neonicotinoids pose to bees becomes clearer.

doi: 10.1038/520416a

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Drug that boosts nerve signals offers hope for multiple sclerosis p.417

Trialled antibody treatment thought to work by renewing the protective coating of neurons.

doi: 10.1038/520417a

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Race to unravel Oklahoma’s artificial quakes p.418

Earthquakes linked to oil and gas operations prompt further research into human-induced seismic hazards.

doi: 10.1038/520418a

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Climate scientists join search for alien Earths p.420

NASA initiative seeks to bolster interdisciplinary science in hunt for extraterrestrial life.

doi: 10.1038/520420a

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Oldest stone tools raise questions about their creators p.421

The 3.3-million-year-old implements predate the first members of the Homo genus.

doi: 10.1038/520421a

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News Features


Forensic science: The soil sleuth p.422

容疑者の靴などに付着した土を証拠として犯罪捜査に役立てる法地質学の先駆的研究者Lorna Dawson(英国ジェームズ・ハットン研究所)に、話を聞いた。

doi: 10.1038/520422a

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Chemistry: Degrees of separation p.426


doi: 10.1038/520426a

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News & Views


Dating techniques: Illuminating the past p.438


doi: 10.1038/520438a

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Structural biology: Pain-sensing TRPA1 channel resolved p.439


doi: 10.1038/nature14383

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Optomechanics: Listening to quantum grains of sound p.441


doi: 10.1038/520441a

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Earth science: Landscape inversion by stream piracy p.442


doi: 10.1038/520442a

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Sensory systems: The yin and yang of cortical oxytocin p.444


doi: 10.1038/nature14386

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Regenerative biology: Neuregulin 1 makes heart muscle p.445


doi: 10.1038/520445a

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Ecology: Shared ancestry predicts disease levels p.446


doi: 10.1038/520446a

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Oxytocin enables maternal behaviour by balancing cortical inhibition p.499

A study of pup retrieval behaviour in mice shows that oxytocin modulates cortical responses to pup calls specifically in the left auditory cortex; in virgin females, call-evoked responses were enhanced, thus increasing their salience, by pairing oxytocin delivery in the left auditory cortex with the calls, suggesting enhancement was a result of balancing the magnitude and timing of inhibition with excitation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14402

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CRISPR adaptation biases explain preference for acquisition of foreign DNA p.505

In the bacterial immunity system CRISPR, spacer acquisition is facilitated near replication-termination regions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14302

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Structure of the TRPA1 ion channel suggests regulatory mechanisms p.511

The high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy structure of the full-length human TRPA1 ion channel is presented; the structure reveals a unique ankyrin repeat domain arrangement, a tetrameric coiled-coil in the centre of the channel that acts as a binding site for inositol hexakisphosphate, an outer poor domain with two pore helices, and a new drug binding site, findings that collectively provide mechanistic insight into TRPA1 regulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14367

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Self-similar fragmentation regulated by magnetic fields in a region forming massive stars p.518

Polarimetric observations of magnetic-field orientations in a filamentary molecular cloud forming massive stars shows that the magnetic field strongly affects fragmentation in the region.

doi: 10.1038/nature14291

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Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator p.522

A silicon nanometre-scale mechanical resonator, patterned to couple optical and mechanical resonances, is found to emit photons when optically pumped; photon emission corresponds directly to phonon emission, enabling the phonons to be counted.

doi: 10.1038/nature14349

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地球科学:河川網の分断の結果としてin situで形成されている起伏の小さい地形

In situ low-relief landscape formation as a result of river network disruption p.526

Landscapes on Earth retain a record of the tectonic, environmental and climatic history under which they formed. Landscapes tend towards an equilibrium in which rivers attain a stable grade that balances the tectonic production of elevation and with hillslopes that attain a gradient steep enough to transport material to river channels. Equilibrium low-relief surfaces are typically found at low elevations, graded to sea level. However, there are many examples of high-elevation, low-relief surfaces, often referred to as relict landscapes, or as elevated peneplains. These do not grade to sea level and are typically interpreted as uplifted old landscapes, preserving former, more moderate tectonic conditions. Here we test this model of landscape evolution through digital topographic analysis of a set of purportedly relict landscapes on the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, one of the most geographically complex, climatically varied and biologically diverse regions of the world. We find that, in contrast to theory, the purported surfaces are not consistent with progressive establishment of a new, steeper, river grade, and therefore they cannot necessarily be interpreted as a remnant of an old, low relief surface. We propose an alternative model, supported by numerical experiments, in which tectonic deformation has disrupted the regional river network, leaving remnants of it isolated and starved of drainage area and thus unable to balance tectonic uplift. The implication is that the state of low relief with low erosion rate is developing in situ, rather than preserving past erosional conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14354

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Tungsten isotopic evidence for disproportional late accretion to the Earth and Moon p.530

Examination of three lunar samples reveals that the Moon’s mantle has an excess of the tungsten isotope 182W of about 20 parts per million relative to the present-day Earth’s mantle; this suggests that the two bodies had identical compositions immediately following the formation of the Moon, and that the compositions then diverged as a result of disproportional late accretion of chondritic material to the Earth and Moon.

doi: 10.1038/nature14355

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Lunar tungsten isotopic evidence for the late veneer p.534

Precise measurements of the tungsten isotopic composition of lunar rocks show that the Moon exhibits a well-resolved excess of 182W of about 27 parts per million over the present-day Earth’s mantle: this excess is consistent with the expected 182W difference resulting from a late veneer with a total mass and composition inferred from previously measured highly siderophile elements.

doi: 10.1038/nature14360

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Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys p.538

The discovery of new primates from the Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years.

doi: 10.1038/nature14120

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Phylogenetic structure and host abundance drive disease pressure in communities p.542

Rare species may have an advantage in a community by suffering less from disease; here it is shown that, because pathogens are shared among species, it is not just the abundance of a particular species but the structure of the whole community that affects exposure to disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature14372

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Agrochemical control of plant water use using engineered abscisic acid receptors p.545

In response to water shortage, plants produce abscisic acid (ABA), which improves water consumption and stress tolerance; now, a strategy for controlling water use by activating engineered ABA receptors using an existing agrochemical, mandipropamid, is described.

doi: 10.1038/nature14123

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Exit from dormancy provokes DNA-damage-induced attrition in haematopoietic stem cells p.549

Here, DNA damage is shown to occur as a direct consequence of inducing haematopoietic stem cells to exit quiescence in response to conditions of stress; in mice with mutations modelling those seen in Fanconi anaemia, this leads to a complete collapse of the haematopoietic system.

doi: 10.1038/nature14131

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Mitochondrial DNA stress primes the antiviral innate immune response p.553

Mitochondrial DNA stress potentiates type I interferon responses via activation of the cGAS–STING–IRF3 pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature14156

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Super-enhancers delineate disease-associated regulatory nodes in T cells p.558

A study of the super-enhancer landscape in three mouse T-helper lymphocyte subsets identifies nodes that have key roles in cell identity, with the locus encoding Bach2, a key negative regulator of effector differentiation, emerging as the most prominent T-cell super-enhancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature14154

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ATG14 promotes membrane tethering and fusion of autophagosomes to endolysosomes p.563

The essential autophagy mediator ATG14 promotes vesicle fusion by forming homo-oligomers, which bind to a component of the SNARE membrane fusion complex and stabilize this complex on autophagosomes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14147

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構造生物学:Cs補正低温電子顕微鏡により < 3 Å分解能で得られた大腸菌リボゾーム–EF-Tu複合体の構造

Structure of the E. coli ribosome–EF-Tu complex at <3 Å resolution by Cs-corrected cryo-EM p.567

Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has recently made significant progress in high-resolution structure determination of macromolecular complexes due to improvements in electron microscopic instrumentation and computational image analysis. However, cryo-EM structures can be highly non-uniform in local resolution and all structures available to date have been limited to resolutions above 3 Å. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome from Escherichia coli in complex with elongation factor Tu, aminoacyl-tRNA and the antibiotic kirromycin at 2.65–2.9 Å resolution using spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected cryo-EM. Overall, the cryo-EM reconstruction at 2.9 Å resolution is comparable to the best-resolved X-ray structure of the E. coli 70S ribosome (2.8 Å), but provides more detailed information (2.65 Å) at the functionally important ribosomal core. The cryo-EM map elucidates for the first time the structure of all 35 rRNA modifications in the bacterial ribosome, explaining their roles in fine-tuning ribosome structure and function and modulating the action of antibiotics. We also obtained atomic models for flexible parts of the ribosome such as ribosomal proteins L9 and L31. The refined cryo-EM-based model presents the currently most complete high-resolution structure of the E. coli ribosome, which demonstrates the power of cryo-EM in structure determination of large and dynamic macromolecular complexes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14275

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Hydrogens detected by subatomic resolution protein crystallography in a [NiFe] hydrogenase p.571

A sub-ångström-resolution X-ray crystal structure of [NiFe] hydrogenase, with direct detection of the products of the heterolytic splitting of dihydrogen into a hydride bridging the Ni and Fe and a proton attached to the sulphur of a cysteine ligand.

doi: 10.1038/nature14110

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