Volume 520 Number 7548


Highway to health p.407

Africa has an ambitious and welcome plan for a continent-wide centre for disease control — but if the agency is to live up to its promise, it will need substantially better resources.

doi: 10.1038/520407a

Decoupled ideals p.407

‘Ecomodernist Manifesto’ reframes sustainable development, but the goal remains the same.

doi: 10.1038/520407b

More from Moore p.408

Moore's law is approaching physical limits: truly novel physics will be needed to extend it.

doi: 10.1038/520408a


Wolf decline threatens iconic island study p.415

Just three animals remain on Isle Royale, spelling probable end of 57-year ecology project.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17263

Bee studies stir up pesticide debate p.416

The threat that neonicotinoids pose to bees becomes clearer.

doi: 10.1038/520416a

Drug that boosts nerve signals offers hope for multiple sclerosis p.417

Trialled antibody treatment thought to work by renewing the protective coating of neurons.

doi: 10.1038/520417a

Race to unravel Oklahoma’s artificial quakes p.418

Earthquakes linked to oil and gas operations prompt further research into human-induced seismic hazards.

doi: 10.1038/520418a

Climate scientists join search for alien Earths p.420

NASA initiative seeks to bolster interdisciplinary science in hunt for extraterrestrial life.

doi: 10.1038/520420a

Oldest stone tools raise questions about their creators p.421

The 3.3-million-year-old implements predate the first members of the Homo genus.

doi: 10.1038/520421a

News Features

Forensic science: The soil sleuth p.422

Forensic geologist Lorna Dawson has pioneered methods to help convict criminals using the dirt from their shoes.

doi: 10.1038/520422a

Chemistry: Degrees of separation p.426

Chemists hope to break China's monopoly on rare-earth elements by finding cheap, efficient ways to extract them from ore.

doi: 10.1038/520426a

News & Views

Dating techniques: Illuminating the past p.438

The technique of optical dating was first reported 30 years ago, and has since revolutionized studies of events that occurred during the past 500,000 years. Here, two practitioners of optical dating assess its impact and consider its future.

doi: 10.1038/520438a

Structural biology: Pain-sensing TRPA1 channel resolved p.439

The TRPA1 ion channel activates pain pathways in response to noxious compounds. The structure of TRPA1 has now been solved, providing insight into how it functions. See Article p.511

doi: 10.1038/nature14383

Optomechanics: Listening to quantum grains of sound p.441

An optomechanical device has allowed quanta, or 'grains', of mechanical vibration to be counted by optical means. The system may open up new possibilities in acoustics and thermal engineering. See Letter p.522

doi: 10.1038/520441a

Earth science: Landscape inversion by stream piracy p.442

A model suggests that active deformation in mountains causes river networks to constantly reorganize, providing an explanation for the paradoxical formation of almost flat surfaces high in craggy mountain ranges. See Letter p.526

doi: 10.1038/520442a

Sensory systems: The yin and yang of cortical oxytocin p.444

Female mice can learn to respond to distress calls from young mice — an ability that has now been found to be improved through signalling by the hormone oxytocin in the left auditory cortex of the brain. See Article p.499

doi: 10.1038/nature14386

Regenerative biology: Neuregulin 1 makes heart muscle p.445

Three studies reveal that augmentation of a signalling pathway involving the growth factor neuregulin 1 and its receptor protein ERBB2 can promote the generation of muscle cells in zebrafish, mice and infant heart tissue.

doi: 10.1038/520445a

Ecology: Shared ancestry predicts disease levels p.446

Ecological factors such as host density are important predictors of disease incidence. But another key determinant may be the evolutionary history and relatedness of the host community. See Letter p.542

doi: 10.1038/520446a


Oxytocin enables maternal behaviour by balancing cortical inhibition p.499

A study of pup retrieval behaviour in mice shows that oxytocin modulates cortical responses to pup calls specifically in the left auditory cortex; in virgin females, call-evoked responses were enhanced, thus increasing their salience, by pairing oxytocin delivery in the left auditory cortex with the calls, suggesting enhancement was a result of balancing the magnitude and timing of inhibition with excitation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14402

CRISPR adaptation biases explain preference for acquisition of foreign DNA p.505

In the bacterial immunity system CRISPR, spacer acquisition is facilitated near replication-termination regions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14302

Structure of the TRPA1 ion channel suggests regulatory mechanisms p.511

The high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy structure of the full-length human TRPA1 ion channel is presented; the structure reveals a unique ankyrin repeat domain arrangement, a tetrameric coiled-coil in the centre of the channel that acts as a binding site for inositol hexakisphosphate, an outer poor domain with two pore helices, and a new drug binding site, findings that collectively provide mechanistic insight into TRPA1 regulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14367


Self-similar fragmentation regulated by magnetic fields in a region forming massive stars p.518

Polarimetric observations of magnetic-field orientations in a filamentary molecular cloud forming massive stars shows that the magnetic field strongly affects fragmentation in the region.

doi: 10.1038/nature14291

Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator p.522

A silicon nanometre-scale mechanical resonator, patterned to couple optical and mechanical resonances, is found to emit photons when optically pumped; photon emission corresponds directly to phonon emission, enabling the phonons to be counted.

doi: 10.1038/nature14349

In situ low-relief landscape formation as a result of river network disruption p.526

The relict landscapes of southeast Tibet are being formed In situ as a result of river drainage reorganization that renders rivers unable to balance tectonic uplift, so these landscapes may not provide an unaltered record of past geomorphic conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14354

Tungsten isotopic evidence for disproportional late accretion to the Earth and Moon p.530

Examination of three lunar samples reveals that the Moon’s mantle has an excess of the tungsten isotope 182W of about 20 parts per million relative to the present-day Earth’s mantle; this suggests that the two bodies had identical compositions immediately following the formation of the Moon, and that the compositions then diverged as a result of disproportional late accretion of chondritic material to the Earth and Moon.

doi: 10.1038/nature14355

Lunar tungsten isotopic evidence for the late veneer p.534

Precise measurements of the tungsten isotopic composition of lunar rocks show that the Moon exhibits a well-resolved excess of 182W of about 27 parts per million over the present-day Earth’s mantle: this excess is consistent with the expected 182W difference resulting from a late veneer with a total mass and composition inferred from previously measured highly siderophile elements.

doi: 10.1038/nature14360

Eocene primates of South America and the African origins of New World monkeys p.538

The discovery of new primates from the Late Eocene epoch of Amazonian Peru extends the fossil record of primates in South America back approximately 10 million years.

doi: 10.1038/nature14120

Phylogenetic structure and host abundance drive disease pressure in communities p.542

Rare species may have an advantage in a community by suffering less from disease; here it is shown that, because pathogens are shared among species, it is not just the abundance of a particular species but the structure of the whole community that affects exposure to disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature14372

Agrochemical control of plant water use using engineered abscisic acid receptors p.545

In response to water shortage, plants produce abscisic acid (ABA), which improves water consumption and stress tolerance; now, a strategy for controlling water use by activating engineered ABA receptors using an existing agrochemical, mandipropamid, is described.

doi: 10.1038/nature14123

Exit from dormancy provokes DNA-damage-induced attrition in haematopoietic stem cells p.549

Here, DNA damage is shown to occur as a direct consequence of inducing haematopoietic stem cells to exit quiescence in response to conditions of stress; in mice with mutations modelling those seen in Fanconi anaemia, this leads to a complete collapse of the haematopoietic system.

doi: 10.1038/nature14131

Mitochondrial DNA stress primes the antiviral innate immune response p.553

Mitochondrial DNA stress potentiates type I interferon responses via activation of the cGAS–STING–IRF3 pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature14156

Super-enhancers delineate disease-associated regulatory nodes in T cells p.558

A study of the super-enhancer landscape in three mouse T-helper lymphocyte subsets identifies nodes that have key roles in cell identity, with the locus encoding Bach2, a key negative regulator of effector differentiation, emerging as the most prominent T-cell super-enhancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature14154

ATG14 promotes membrane tethering and fusion of autophagosomes to endolysosomes p.563

The essential autophagy mediator ATG14 promotes vesicle fusion by forming homo-oligomers, which bind to a component of the SNARE membrane fusion complex and stabilize this complex on autophagosomes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14147

Structure of the E. coli ribosome–EF-Tu complex at <3 Å resolution by Cs-corrected cryo-EM p.567

A single particle cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome in complex with the elongation factor Tu breaks the 3 Å resolution barrier of the technique and locally exceeds the resolution of previous crystallographic studies, revealing all modifications in rRNA and explaining their roles in ribosome function and antibiotic binding.

doi: 10.1038/nature14275

Hydrogens detected by subatomic resolution protein crystallography in a [NiFe] hydrogenase p.571

A sub-ångström-resolution X-ray crystal structure of [NiFe] hydrogenase, with direct detection of the products of the heterolytic splitting of dihydrogen into a hydride bridging the Ni and Fe and a proton attached to the sulphur of a cysteine ligand.

doi: 10.1038/nature14110

「Journal home」に戻る