Tree cheers p.5

The world must follow Brazil’s lead and do more to protect and restore forests.

doi: 10.1038/520005b

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Communication breakdown p.5

A policy change that could discourage UK government scientists from talking to the media is a backwards step. All researchers need to speak up to put science on the political agenda.

doi: 10.1038/520005a

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Walking 2.0 p.6

A passive device that augments calf muscles improves on natural selection’s best effort.

doi: 10.1038/520006a

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米国のアレン脳科学研究所が、脳機能の解明に役立つニューロンの百科事典の作成を目指す「BigNeuron project」を発表。

Neuron encyclopaedia fires up to reveal brain secrets p.13

But effort to catalogue brain’s building blocks may stoke disagreements over classification.

doi: 10.1038/520013a

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Global-warming limit of 2 °C hangs in the balance p.14

Panel creates scientific baseline for debate about climate reparations.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17202

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UK election: Upstart parties set out science plans p.16

What the rising influence of the Greens, UKIP and the Scottish National Party means for research policy.

doi: 10.1038/520016a

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Mini enzyme moves gene editing closer to the clinic p.18

Discovery expands potential CRISPR toolbox for treating genetic diseases in humans.

doi: 10.1038/520018a

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News Features


Stopping deforestation: Battle for the Amazon p.20


doi: 10.1038/520020a

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Evidence-based medicine: Save blood, save lives p.24


doi: 10.1038/520024a

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News & Views


Quantum physics: Two-atom bunching p.36


doi: 10.1038/520036a

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Cancer: A piece of the p53 puzzle p.37


doi: 10.1038/nature14374

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Biodiversity: Land use matters p.38


doi: 10.1038/520038a

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Planetary science: Preventing stars from eating their young p.40


doi: 10.1038/520040a

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Plant biology: Coding in non-coding RNAs p.41


doi: 10.1038/nature14378

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Zoology: Here be dragons p.42


doi: 10.1038/520042a

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Global effects of land use on local terrestrial biodiversity p.45

Analysis of a global data set of local biodiversity comparisons reveals an average 13.6% reduction in species richness and 10.7% reduction in abundance as a result of past human land use, and projections based on these data under a business-as-usual land-use scenario predict further substantial loss this century, unless strong mitigation efforts are undertaken to reverse the effects.

doi: 10.1038/nature14324

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Loss of δ-catenin function in severe autism p.51

In severe autism, deleterious variants at conserved residues are enriched in patients arising from female-enriched multiplex families, enhancing the detection of key autism genes in modest numbers of cases.

doi: 10.1038/nature14186

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Ferroptosis as a p53-mediated activity during tumour suppression p.57

p53 suppresses expression of SLC7A11, a key component of the cystine/glutamate amino acid transport machinery, leading to inhibition of cystine uptake and promoting ferroptosis, an iron-dependent form of cell death.

doi: 10.1038/nature14344

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Planet heating prevents inward migration of planetary cores p.63

Modelling of planetary formation reveals that asymmetries in the temperature rise associated with accretion produce a torque that counteracts inward migration, suggesting how the conditions for giant-planet formation may arise.

doi: 10.1038/nature14277

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Atomic Hong–Ou–Mandel experiment p.66

The Hong–Ou–Mandel effect—in which two indistinguishable photons that enter a 50:50 beam-splitter are found only as a pair at one of the two outputs, leading to a dip in the coincidence rate of the detectors—is now realized with 4He atoms instead of photons; this opens the way to performing basic quantum-physics experiments with mechanical observables of massive particles.

doi: 10.1038/nature14331

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Monolayer semiconductor nanocavity lasers with ultralow thresholds p.69

A miniature laser is reported that uses two-dimensional tungsten diselenide as the active medium, which is placed on a photonic crystal membrane that acts as the laser cavity; the laser emits visible light, with an ultralow pump threshold.

doi: 10.1038/nature14290

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Shape-changing magnetic assemblies as high-sensitivity NMR-readable nanoprobes p.73

A shape-changing sensor made of pairs of magnetic disks spaced by swellable hydrogel material removes all need for optical access by operating in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) radio-frequency spectrum.

doi: 10.1038/nature14294

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Orbital-specific mapping of the ligand exchange dynamics of Fe(CO)5 in solution p.78

Mapping the frontier-orbital interactions with atom specificity using X-ray laser-based femtosecond-resolution spectroscopy reveals that spin crossover and ligation determine the sub-picosecond excited-state dynamics of a transition-metal complex in solution.

doi: 10.1038/nature14296

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Osteichthyan-like cranial conditions in an Early Devonian stem gnathostome p.82

A new analysis of a 415-million-year-old fossil fish head originally described as from an early osteichthyan (bony fish) puts it instead as the sister group of the gnathosomes (jawed vertebrates), and suggests that the extinct acanthodians were relatives of cartilaginous fishes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14065

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Evolution of the snake body form reveals homoplasy in amniote Hox gene function p.86

Traditionally, the vertebral column of snakes was thought to have lost regionalization; Hox regionalization is now shown to be maintained in snakes, suggesting that gradational vertebral column regionalization is primitive to amniotes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14042

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Primary transcripts of microRNAs encode regulatory peptides p.90

Plant primary microRNA (miRNA) transcripts (pri-miRNAs) are not just a source of miRNAs but can also encode regulatory peptides (miPEPs) that enhance the accumulation, and so the effect, of the corresponding mature miRNAs—an observation that may have agronomical applications.

doi: 10.1038/nature14346

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G-protein-independent coupling of MC4R to Kir7.1 in hypothalamic neurons p.94

α-MSH and AgRP, two hypothalamus-derived peptides with opposing actions on the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), modulate neurons driving feeding behaviour; although previous downstream mechanisms of cellular modulation by these peptides have been determined, here α-MSH and AgRP are shown to regulate neural activity by coupling MC4R to Kir7.1 potassium channels and closing or opening them, respectively.

doi: 10.1038/nature14051

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細胞微生物学:マウス・セグメント細菌のin vitroでの増殖および宿主との相互作用

Growth and host interaction of mouse segmented filamentous bacteria in vitro p.99

Development of a segmented filamentous bacteria and host cell co-culturing system that supports filamentation, segmentation, and differentiation to release viable infectious intracellular offspring.

doi: 10.1038/nature14027

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Commensal–dendritic-cell interaction specifies a unique protective skin immune signature p.104

Defined skin commensal bacteria elicit a dermal dendritic-cell-dependent, long-lasting, commensal-specific CD8+ T-cell response that promotes protection against pathogens while preserving tissue homeostasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14052

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Recognition determinants of broadly neutralizing human antibodies against dengue viruses p.109

Human antibodies in complex with the soluble dimeric form of the dengue virus envelope protein E recognize a quaternary epitope and exhibit strong neutralizing activity against all four virus serotypes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14130

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Tel1ATM-mediated interference suppresses clustered meiotic double-strand-break formation p.114

Meiotic recombination is a critical step in gametogenesis for many organisms, enabling the creation of genetically diverse haploid gametes. In each meiotic cell, recombination is initiated by numerous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) created by Spo11, the evolutionarily conserved topoisomerase-like protein, but how these DSBs are distributed relatively uniformly across the four chromatids that make up each chromosome pair is poorly understood. Here we employ Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate distance-dependent DSB interference in cis (in which the occurrence of a DSB suppresses adjacent DSB formation)—a process that is mediated by the conserved DNA damage response kinase, Tel1ATM. The inhibitory function of Tel1 acts on a relatively local scale, while over large distances DSBs have a tendency to form independently of one another even in the presence of Tel1. Notably, over very short distances, loss of Tel1 activity causes DSBs to cluster within discrete zones of concerted DSB activity. Our observations support a hierarchical view of recombination initiation where Tel1ATM prevents clusters of DSBs, and further suppresses DSBs within the surrounding chromosomal region. Such collective negative regulation will help to ensure that recombination events are dispersed evenly and arranged optimally for genetic exchange and efficient chromosome segregation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13993

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