目次

Editorials

イタリアが、未認可細胞治療をめぐって長く続いた混乱に終止符を打ち、正しい方向に動き出した。

When right beats might p.455

The final act in a long-running Italian saga should bring tighter controls on unproven stem-cell therapies, both at home and abroad.

doi: 10.1038/518455a

痛みを客観的に評価する技術の信頼性については、慎重な監視が必要だ。

A sore thing p.456

The use of technologies that objectively measure pain must be carefully monitored.

doi: 10.1038/518456b

有名な気候変動懐疑論者とエネルギー業界との強い結び付きが判明し、懸念すべき構図が浮かび上がった。

No strings p.456

Details of a climate-change sceptic’s links to the energy industry make worrying reading.

doi: 10.1038/518456a

News

英国が、8万人以上の赤ちゃんを長期的に調査する、大規模な研究を開始へ。

Wanted: 80,000 British babies for massive study p.463

UK launches effort to track children from birth, months after US counterpart closes.

doi: 10.1038/518463a

ロンドンの新しい鉄道計画が、フランシス・クリック研究所の実験環境に悪影響を及ぼす懸念が。

Francis Crick Institute raises alarm about train line p.464

London biomedical powerhouse fears that proposed route will disrupt delicate science experiments.

doi: 10.1038/518464a

経験に基づいて自己学習するコンピューター・アルゴリズムが、古典的なビデオゲームで人間を上回る成績を。

Game-playing software holds lessons for neuroscience p.465

DeepMind computer provides new way to investigate how the brain works.

doi: 10.1038/518465a

頭部外傷によって残る脳の疾患の明確な定義・診断を目指し、研究が。

Researchers seek definition of head-trauma disorder p.466

Guidelines should assist in diagnosis of brain disease seen in retired American footballers.

doi: 10.1038/518466a

図で見る準惑星探査計画:「ドーン」と「ニュー・ホライズン」

A tale of two dwarf planets p.468

Graphical guide to the NASA missions that will provide the first close looks at Ceres and Pluto.

doi: 10.1038/518468a

News Features

惑星科学:プルート兄妹

Planetary science: The Pluto siblings p.470

冥王星の研究に生涯をかけてきたNASAの惑星科学者Young兄妹は現在、探査計画最大の山場に向けて準備を着々と進めている。

doi: 10.1038/518470a

法廷の神経科学:痛みを伴う真実

Neuroscience in court: The painful truth p.474

痛みは、脳スキャン技術によって客観的に測定できる見込みがあるが、この方法が裁判に利用できるほどの信頼性があるかどうかは疑問視されている。

doi: 10.1038/518474a

News & Views

人工知能:見て学習したことを実際にやってみる

Artificial intelligence: Learning to see and act p.486

人工知能システムの1つが、大量のトレーニングセットからの機械学習を使って49種の古典的コンピューターゲームのやり方を学び、多様なタスクに適応可能であることを実証した。

doi: 10.1038/518486a

生物多様性:伝統的な知識は役に立つ

Biodiversity: The benefits of traditional knowledge p.487

バルカン半島の近接した地域に居住している2つの少数民族集団についての研究から、その地域でとれる植物資源についての伝統的知識が、地域社会が飢饉を生き延びるのに役立ち、さらに生物多様性の保全を促進している可能性があることが判明した。

doi: 10.1038/518487a

幹細胞:血液を追跡する

Stem cells: Chasing blood p.488

移植された幹細胞からあらゆる種類の血液細胞が生じる仕組みは多くの実験で調べられているが、擾乱を受けていない、生理的条件下でのこの過程はこれとは異なるものであることが分かってきた。

doi: 10.1038/nature14203

宇宙論:若い宇宙に存在した巨大なブラックホール

Cosmology: A giant in the young Universe p.490

宇宙が9億歳に達しない若い時期に存在していた極めて大質量のブラックホールが見つかった。この観測結果は、若い宇宙におけるブラックホールと銀河の成長に関する手掛かりを与えてくれる。

doi: 10.1038/518490b

量子物理学:2つを運ぶテレポーテーション

Quantum physics: Teleportation for two p.491

量子力学の「量子複製不可能」定理は、光子や電子の属性の完全な複製を作ることを禁じるものである。だが、量子テレポーテーションではそれらの完全な移動が可能であり、今回2つの属性であっても同時に移動できることが実証された。

doi: 10.1038/518491a

分子生物学:2段階調節をやってのけるRNA修飾

Molecular biology: RNA modification does a regulatory two-step p.492

RNAのm6Aという構造修飾は遺伝子発現を調節している。この修飾は、珍しい制御機構を仲介することが分かった。m6AはRNAの構造を変化させることで、調節タンパク質がそのRNAに結合できるようにするのである。

doi: 10.1038/518492a

Articles

がんゲノミクス:全ゲノム解析によって膵臓がんの変異の全体像を再検討

Whole genomes redefine the mutational landscape of pancreatic cancer p.495

A whole-genome sequencing analysis of 100 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas has discovered known and newly identified genetic drivers of pancreatic cancer; these genetic alterations can be classified into four subtypes, which raises the possibility of improved targeting of clinical treatments.

doi: 10.1038/nature14169

分子生物学:ラギング鎖複製がゲノムの変異の特徴を形作る

Lagging-strand replication shapes the mutational landscape of the genome p.502

The emRiboSeq sequencing method is used to track polymerase activity genome-wide in vivo; despite Okazaki fragment processing, DNA synthesized by error-prone polymerase-α (Pol-α) is retained in vivo and comprises ~1.5% of the genome, establishing Pol-α as an important source of genomic variability and providing a mechanism for site-specific variation in nucleotide substitution rates.

doi: 10.1038/nature14183

免疫学:V(D)JリコンビナーゼRAG1–RAG2の結晶構造

Crystal structure of the V(D)J recombinase RAG1–RAG2 p.507

The crystal structure of the RAG1–RAG2 heterotetramer forms a Y-shaped structure, with each arm containing a RAG1–RAG2 heterodimer; the overall structure is reminiscent of hairpin-forming transposases, attesting to its evolutionary history as a specialized form of a transposition activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature14174

Letters

宇宙論:赤方偏移6.30に位置する120億倍の太陽質量のブラックホールを持つ超高光度クエーサー

An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30 p.512

Observations of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30 show that the object has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known quasars at z > 6; the black hole that drives the quasar has a mass about 12 billion times that of the Sun.

doi: 10.1038/nature14241

量子物理学:単一光子の多自由度の量子テレポーテーション

Quantum teleportation of multiple degrees of freedom of a single photon p.516

The quantum teleportation of composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both spin and orbital angular momentum is achieved, with a teleportation fidelity above the classical limit, by quantum non-demolition measurement assisted discrimination of the Bell states describing the entanglement of the two degrees of freedom.

doi: 10.1038/nature14246

材料科学:調節可能な界面張力を用いた動的に再構成可能な複合エマルション

Dynamically reconfigurable complex emulsions via tunable interfacial tensions p.520

The temperature-sensitive miscibility of hydrocarbon, silicone and fluorocarbon liquids is used to establish a one-step method of making three- and four-phase complex emulsions with highly controllable morphologies that can be alternated between encapsulated and Janus configurations by varying the balance of interfacial tensions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14168

惑星科学:火星の日出明暗境界線で観測された非常に高い高度のプルーム

An extremely high-altitude plume seen at Mars’ morning terminator p.525

Examination of amateur observations of Mars shows atmospheric plumes 200 to 250 kilometres high that are observed in the morning but not in the evening over a period of more than a week; our current understanding of Martian atmospheric dynamics and plume formation cannot account for the creation of such enormous plumes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14162

人工知能:深層強化学習を介した人間レベルの制御

Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning p.529

An artificial agent is developed that learns to play a diverse range of classic Atari 2600 computer games directly from sensory experience, achieving a performance comparable to that of an expert human player; this work paves the way to building general-purpose learning algorithms that bridge the divide between perception and action.

doi: 10.1038/nature14236

進化学:古い脊索動物骨格組織の転用による新たな脊椎動物頭部の進化

Evolution of the new vertebrate head by co-option of an ancient chordate skeletal tissue p.534

A tissue with many of the defining features of vertebrate cellular cartilage is shown to form transiently in larvae of the invertebrate chordate amphioxus, indicating that the origin of the vertebrate head skeleton depended not on evolution of a new skeletal tissue, as is commonly thought, but on the spread of this tissue throughout the head.

doi: 10.1038/nature14000

文化進化学:野鳥に実験的に誘導した革新的行動が同調によって持続的な文化となる

Experimentally induced innovations lead to persistent culture via conformity in wild birds p.538

How socially transmitted behaviours spread and persist is shown in a wild animal population, revealing an effect of social conformity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13998

幹細胞:in vivoでの幹細胞からの定常状態の造血の基本的な特性

Fundamental properties of unperturbed haematopoiesis from stem cells in vivo p.542

Inducible genetic labelling of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and linked mathematical modelling show that at least 30% of all HSCs are productive, and that adult haematopoiesis is largely sustained by ‘short-term’ downstream stem cells that operate near self-renewal in the steady state; HSC fate mapping provides a quantitative model for better understanding of HSC functions in health and disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature14242

発生生物学:組織常在性マクロファージは卵黄嚢由来の赤血球骨髄系前駆細胞から生じる

Tissue-resident macrophages originate from yolk-sac-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors p.547

To determine the origin of adult tissue-resident macrophages, a mouse lineage tracing study has revealed that these cells derive from erythro-myeloid progenitors in the yolk sac that are distinct from fetal and adult haematopoietic stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature13989

がん:治療関連性急性骨髄性白血病の起源と進化におけるTP53変異の役割

Role of TP53 mutations in the origin and evolution of therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia p.552

Somatic TP53 mutations are highly prevalent in therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome, which arise as complications of cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy; although it was believed that these TP53 mutations are directly induced by cytotoxic therapy, new data indicate that they predate cytotoxic therapy and that haematopoietic progenitors harbouring these pre-existing mutations may selectively expand after exposure to chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature13968

遺伝子制御学:エンハンサー–コアプロモーターの特異性が、発生遺伝子の調節とハウスキーピング遺伝子の調節を分離している

Enhancer–core-promoter specificity separates developmental and housekeeping gene regulation p.556

Gene transcription in animals involves the assembly of RNA polymerase II at core promoters and its cell-type-specific activation by enhancers that can be located more distally. However, how ubiquitous expression of housekeeping genes is achieved has been less clear. In particular, it is unknown whether ubiquitously active enhancers exist and how developmental and housekeeping gene regulation is separated. An attractive hypothesis is that different core promoters might exhibit an intrinsic specificity to certain enhancers. This is conceivable, as various core promoter sequence elements are differentially distributed between genes of different functions, including elements that are predominantly found at either developmentally regulated or at housekeeping genes. Here we show that thousands of enhancers in Drosophila melanogaster S2 and ovarian somatic cells (OSCs) exhibit a marked specificity to one of two core promoters—one derived from a ubiquitously expressed ribosomal protein gene and another from a developmentally regulated transcription factor—and confirm the existence of these two classes for five additional core promoters from genes with diverse functions. Housekeeping enhancers are active across the two cell types, while developmental enhancers exhibit strong cell-type specificity. Both enhancer classes differ in their genomic distribution, the functions of neighbouring genes, and the core promoter elements of these neighbouring genes. In addition, we identify two transcription factors—Dref and Trl—that bind and activate housekeeping versus developmental enhancers, respectively. Our results provide evidence for a sequence-encoded enhancer–core-promoter specificity that separates developmental and housekeeping gene regulatory programs for thousands of enhancers and their target genes across the entire genome.

doi: 10.1038/nature13994

分子生物学:N6-メチルアデノシンに依存するRNA構造スイッチが、RNAとタンパク質の相互作用を調節している

N6-methyladenosine-dependent RNA structural switches regulate RNA–protein interactions p.560

RNA-binding proteins control many aspects of cellular biology through binding single-stranded RNA binding motifs (RBMs). However, RBMs can be buried within their local RNA structures, thus inhibiting RNA–protein interactions. N6-methyladenosine (m6A), the most abundant and dynamic internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNA, can be selectively recognized by the YTHDF2 protein to affect the stability of cytoplasmic mRNAs, but how m6A achieves its wide-ranging physiological role needs further exploration. Here we show in human cells that m6A controls the RNA-structure-dependent accessibility of RBMs to affect RNA–protein interactions for biological regulation; we term this mechanism ‘the m6A-switch’. We found that m6A alters the local structure in mRNA and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) to facilitate binding of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (HNRNPC), an abundant nuclear RNA-binding protein responsible for pre-mRNA processing. Combining photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) and anti-m6A immunoprecipitation (MeRIP) approaches enabled us to identify 39,060 m6A-switches among HNRNPC-binding sites; and global m6A reduction decreased HNRNPC binding at 2,798 high-confidence m6A-switches. We determined that these m6A-switch-regulated HNRNPC-binding activities affect the abundance as well as alternative splicing of target mRNAs, demonstrating the regulatory role of m6A-switches on gene expression and RNA maturation. Our results illustrate how RNA-binding proteins gain regulated access to their RBMs through m6A-dependent RNA structural remodelling, and provide a new direction for investigating RNA-modification-coded cellular biology.

doi: 10.1038/nature14234

「Journal home」に戻る

プライバシーマーク制度