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Editorials

欧州宇宙機関(ESA)の彗星着陸計画はリスクも高いが、称賛に値する大きな夢だ。

High ambition p.163

The European Space Agency can be proud of its comet mission— whatever happens.

doi: 10.1038/515163b

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特集:大いなるうつ病:うつが病気であるとの認識は広がっているが、治療法の進歩には、日常的な偏見をなくす必要がある。

The burden of depression p.163

It is time for the stigma to end.

doi: 10.1038/515163a

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Nature は、主要な論文誌に掲載された論文を研究機関別・国別に見られるデータベース「Nature Index」の提供を開始する。

Launch of the Nature Index p.164

doi: 10.1038/515164a

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News

イタリアのラクイラ地震の予知失敗について、逆転判決で科学者たちに無罪が。

Scientists cleared of quake deaths p.171

Appeals court says six scientists did not cause deaths in 2009 L'Aquila earthquake and cuts sentence of a government official.

doi: 10.1038/515171a

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彗星探査機ロゼッタのチュリュモフ・ゲラシメンコ彗星表面への着陸機投下の様子を、段階を追って図解する。

Landing on a comet p.172

A graphical guide identifies the dangers ahead for the Philae probe.

doi: 10.1038/515172a

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ヘルシンキ宣言(ヒトを対象とする医学研究の倫理的原則)が50周年を迎えたが、研究者からは負担が大き過ぎるとの声も。

Edits to ethics code rankle p.174

Clinical-trial obligations introduced into the Helsinki declaration called too onerous by some.

doi: 10.1038/515174a

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メンタルヘルスには腸内細菌が関係するとの見方が。

Gut–brain link grabs neuroscientists p.175

Idea that intestinal bacteria affect mental health gains ground.

doi: 10.1038/515175a

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エボラ出血熱治療薬の臨床試験をめぐり、対照群を置くことに倫理的ジレンマが。

Ethical dilemma for Ebola trials p.177

Public-health officials split on use of control groups in tests of experimental treatments.

doi: 10.1038/515177a

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News Features

特集:大いなるうつ病:うつは重要な問題

Mental health: The great depression p.179

うつ病は生活に深刻な支障を来すが、その改善に科学はどう役立つのだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/515179a

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特集:大いなるうつ病:うつの世界

Mental health: A world of depression p.180

統計で見る世界のうつ病の現状。

doi: 10.1038/515180a

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特集:大いなるうつ病:うつが、もしもがんだったら

Medical research: If depression were cancer p.182

「がんの研究は盛んだが、うつ病の研究は活発とは言えない」という状況が変わる可能性が見えてきた。

doi: 10.1038/515182a

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特集:大いなるうつ病:思考を変える

Depression: A change of mind p.185

心理療法の中で認知行動療法は最も研究が進んでいるが、どうして有効なのかはまだ解明されていない。

doi: 10.1038/515185a

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News & Views

フォーラム:うつ病:前進のための最良の方法

Depression: The best way forward p.200

うつ病の研究には、抑うつ様行動を示す、従来からあるマウスモデルが使われることが多いが、このモデルではヒトのうつ病の全貌を捉らえているとはいえない。このフォーラムでは、治療法を改善するつもりならば、行うべき最良の戦略について、2つの見方が専門家によって提案されている。

doi: 10.1038/515200a

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物性物理学:磁場のない磁場

Condensed-matter physics: Magnetic fields without magnetic fields p.202

量子系の精巧な制御によって、量子ホール効果と呼ばれるエキゾチックな形の粒子輸送を磁場なしで生じさせる方法についてのアイデアが実現可能になった。

doi: 10.1038/515202a

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古生物学:謎の恐竜の正体

Palaeontology: Mystery of the horrible hands solved p.203

モンゴルで見つかった7000万年前の恐竜デイノケイルス(Deinocheirus mirificus)の2組の化石には、これまで盗掘などで欠けていた部分も含まれており、最も不可解な種の1つとされてきたこの恐竜の真の姿が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13930

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高温超伝導:鉄塩の中に見える電子の蜃気楼

High-temperature superconductivity: Electron mirages in an iron salt p.205

単一原子層のセレン化鉄の発光スペクトル中に観測された異常なエネルギーバンドの「蜃気楼」から、このような人工的な構造に見られる高温超伝導の原因とおぼしきものが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/515205a

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神経生物学:もっと大きな脳を構築する

Neurobiology: Building a bigger brain p.206

ヒトおよびマウスの発生中の脳に含まれる神経幹細胞の機能と遺伝子発現プロファイルを解析する革新的な方法により、この2種類の動物の間の相違点と類似点が明らかになってきた。

doi: 10.1038/515206a

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神経科学:小胞エンドサイトーシスについての統一見解に向けて

Neuroscience: Towards unified vesicle endocytosis p.207

エンドサイトーシスの超高速温度依存性モードは、神経が繰り返し発火するのに必要な過程である。これがエンドサイトーシスについての現在の考え方に難問を投げ掛け、従来からのモデルに再度注目を集めることになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13925

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Articles

神経科学:自閉スペクトラム症で破壊されているシナプス、転写およびクロマチン関連遺伝子

Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism p.209

Whole-exome sequencing in a large autism study identifies over 100 autosomal genes that are likely to affect risk for the disorder; these genes, which show unusual evolutionary constraint against mutations, carry de novo loss-of-function mutations in over 5% of autistic subjects and many function in synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin-remodelling pathways.

doi: 10.1038/nature13772

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神経科学:de novoコード変異の自閉スペクトラム症への関与

The contribution of de novo coding mutations to autism spectrum disorder p.216

Family-based exome sequencing in a large autism study has identified 27 high-confidence gene targets and accurately estimates the contribution of both de novo gene-disrupting and missense mutations to the incidence of simplex autism, with target genes in affected females overlapping those in males of lower but not higher IQ; targets also overlap known targets for intellectual disability and schizophrenia, and are enriched for chromatin modifiers, FMRP-associated genes and embryonically expressed genes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13908

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神経科学:蚊のヒト選好性の進化と関連付けられた、におい受容体

Evolution of mosquito preference for humans linked to an odorant receptor p.222

The mosquito Aedes aegypti includes two subspecies, one of which shows a preference for biting humans, whereas the other prefers to bite non-human animals; genetic analysis reveals that changes in the mosquito odorant receptor Or4 contribute to the behavioural difference—in human-preferring mosquitoes, Or4 is more highly expressed and more sensitive to sulcatone, a compound present at high levels in human odour.

doi: 10.1038/nature13964

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神経科学:クラスリンはエンドソームからシナプス小胞を再生する

Clathrin regenerates synaptic vesicles from endosomes p.228

Ultrastructural analysis of synaptic vesicle recycling reveals that clathrin is not required for the initial rapid step of vesicle recycling by ultrafast endocytosis at the plasma membrane and instead clathrin acts later at an endosome to regenerate synaptic vesicles; however, when ultrafast endocytosis does not occur (for example, in experiments at room temperature rather than physiological temperature), clathrin-mediated endocytosis does happen at the plasma membrane.

doi: 10.1038/nature13846

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Letters

天文学:いるか座新星2013の膨張する火球

The expanding fireball of Nova Delphini 2013 p.234

High spatial resolution is needed to study the early development of a nova; here measurements of the angular size and radial velocity of Nova Delphini 2013 reveal early structures in the ejected material and a geometric distance to the nova of about 4.5 kiloparsecs from the Sun.

doi: 10.1038/nature13834

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物性物理学:極低温フェルミオンによるトポロジカルHaldaneモデルの実験による実現

Experimental realization of the topological Haldane model with ultracold fermions p.237

The Haldane model, which predicts complex topological states of matter, has been implemented by placing ultracold atoms in a tunable optical lattice that was deformed and shaken.

doi: 10.1038/nature13915

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物性物理学:相互作用する量子回路におけるトポロジカル転移の観察

Observation of topological transitions in interacting quantum circuits p.241

Superconducting quantum circuits are used to directly observe and characterize topological phase transitions; this approach promises to be a powerful and general platform for characterizing topological phenomena in quantum systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature13891

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超伝導:SrTiO3上のFeSe膜におけるTc上昇の起源としての界面モード結合

Interfacial mode coupling as the origin of the enhancement of Tc in FeSe films on SrTiO3 p.245

Films of iron selenide (FeSe) one unit cell thick grown on strontium titanate (SrTiO3 or STO) substrates have recently shown superconducting energy gaps opening at temperatures close to the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 kelvin), which is a record for the iron-based superconductors. The gap opening temperature usually sets the superconducting transition temperature Tc, as the gap signals the formation of Cooper pairs, the bound electron states responsible for superconductivity. To understand why Cooper pairs form at such high temperatures, we examine the role of the SrTiO3 substrate. Here we report high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy results that reveal an unexpected characteristic of the single-unit-cell FeSe/SrTiO3 system: shake-off bands suggesting the presence of bosonic modes, most probably oxygen optical phonons in SrTiO3 (refs 5, 6, 7), which couple to the FeSe electrons with only a small momentum transfer. Such interfacial coupling assists superconductivity in most channels, including those mediated by spin fluctuations. Our calculations suggest that this coupling is responsible for raising the superconducting gap opening temperature in single-unit-cell FeSe/SrTiO3.

doi: 10.1038/nature13894

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有機化学:酸化リグニンから芳香族化合物へのギ酸誘起脱重合

Formic-acid-induced depolymerization of oxidized lignin to aromatics p.249

A method for the depolymerization of oxidized lignin under mild conditions in aqueous formic acid is described that results in more than 60 wt% yield of low-molecular-mass aromatics.

doi: 10.1038/nature13867

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地球物理学:沈み込みが駆動する大陸縁辺域リソスフェアの循環

Subduction-driven recycling of continental margin lithosphere p.253

Seismic images of the subducted Atlantic slab under northeastern South America and the Alboran slab beneath the Gibraltar arc region show that subducting oceanic plates viscously entrain and remove the bottom of the continental thermal boundary layer from adjacent continental margins, driving surface tectonics and pre-conditioning the margins for further deformation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13878

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古生物学:巨大オルニトミモサウルス類Deinocheirus mirificusの長年の謎を解決

Resolving the long-standing enigmas of a giant ornithomimosaur Deinocheirus mirificus p.257

Two almost complete skeletons are presented for the theropod dinosaur Deinocheirus mirificus, revealing a humpbacked form with a duckbill-like skull.

doi: 10.1038/nature13874

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ゲノミクス:動物での比較集団ゲノミクスによって明らかにされた遺伝的多様性の決定要因

Comparative population genomics in animals uncovers the determinants of genetic diversity p.261

Genome-wide DNA polymorphism analysis across 76 animal species reveals a strong effect of ecological strategies, and particularly parental investment, on species levels of genetic diversity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13685

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神経科学:大脳新皮質の放射状グリアはヒトではPDGFD–PDGFRβシグナル伝達を必要とするがマウスでは必要としない

Radial glia require PDGFD–PDGFRβ signalling in human but not mouse neocortex p.264

Evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex underlies many of our unique mental abilities. This expansion has been attributed to the increased proliferative potential of radial glia (RG; neural stem cells) and their subventricular dispersion from the periventricular niche during neocortical development. Such adaptations may have evolved through gene expression changes in RG. However, whether or how RG gene expression varies between humans and other species is unknown. Here we show that the transcriptional profiles of human and mouse neocortical RG are broadly conserved during neurogenesis, yet diverge for specific signalling pathways. By analysing differential gene co-expression relationships between the species, we demonstrate that the growth factor PDGFD is specifically expressed by RG in human, but not mouse, corticogenesis. We also show that the expression domain of PDGFRβ, the cognate receptor for PDGFD, is evolutionarily divergent, with high expression in the germinal region of dorsal human neocortex but not in the mouse. Pharmacological inhibition of PDGFD–PDGFRβ signalling in slice culture prevents normal cell cycle progression of neocortical RG in human, but not mouse. Conversely, injection of recombinant PDGFD or ectopic expression of constitutively active PDGFRβ in developing mouse neocortex increases the proportion of RG and their subventricular dispersion. These findings highlight the requirement of PDGFD–PDGFRβ signalling for human neocortical development and suggest that local production of growth factors by RG supports the expanded germinal region and progenitor heterogeneity of species with large brains.

doi: 10.1038/nature13973

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神経科学:生得的なにおい誘発行動における扁桃体皮質核の関与

The participation of cortical amygdala in innate, odour-driven behaviour p.269

Innate behaviours are observed in naive animals without prior learning or experience, suggesting that the neural circuits that mediate these behaviours are genetically determined and stereotyped. The neural circuits that convey olfactory information from the sense organ to the cortical and subcortical olfactory centres have been anatomically defined, but the specific pathways responsible for innate responses to volatile odours have not been identified. Here we devise genetic strategies that demonstrate that a stereotyped neural circuit that transmits information from the olfactory bulb to cortical amygdala is necessary for innate aversive and appetitive behaviours. Moreover, we use the promoter of the activity-dependent gene arc to express the photosensitive ion channel, channelrhodopsin, in neurons of the cortical amygdala activated by odours that elicit innate behaviours. Optical activation of these neurons leads to appropriate behaviours that recapitulate the responses to innate odours. These data indicate that the cortical amygdala plays a critical role in generating innate odour-driven behaviours but do not preclude its participation in learned olfactory behaviours.

doi: 10.1038/nature13897

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神経科学:ヒト神経細胞の三次元培養によるアルツハイマー病モデル

A three-dimensional human neural cell culture model of Alzheimer’s disease p.274

Early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease mutations induce both amyloid-β and tau pathologies in differentiated human neural stem cells in 3D cultures.

doi: 10.1038/nature13800

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生理:血管構築と生理的力とのPiezo1を介した統合

Piezo1 integration of vascular architecture with physiological force p.279

The Piezo1 calcium-permeable channel is revealed to have a role in the vascular cellular response to shear stress; a mouse knockout reveals that this channel is also important for normal vascular development.

doi: 10.1038/nature13701

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細胞生物学:哺乳類ミトコンドリアリボソームの大サブユニットの完全な構造

The complete structure of the large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome p.283

The structure of the 39S large mitoribosome subunit is solved by cryo-electron microscopy at an impressive 3.4 Å resolution, revealing the location of 50 ribosomal proteins, the peptidyl transferase centre, the tRNAs within this active site, and the nascent peptide chain within the exit tunnel.

doi: 10.1038/nature13895

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構造生物学:Sxl–Unr翻訳調節複合体組み立ての構造基盤

Structural basis for the assembly of the Sxl–Unr translation regulatory complex p.287

The crystal structure of the RNA binding domains of Sxl and Unr with msl2 RNA shows that interwoven interactions establish cooperative assembly of the ternary complex, highlighting how binding of relatively general RNA binding domains to RNA can result in a unique and specific protein–RNA architecture.

doi: 10.1038/nature13693

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