High ambition p.163

The European Space Agency can be proud of its comet mission— whatever happens.

doi: 10.1038/515163b

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The burden of depression p.163

It is time for the stigma to end.

doi: 10.1038/515163a

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Nature は、主要な論文誌に掲載された論文を研究機関別・国別に見られるデータベース「Nature Index」の提供を開始する。

Launch of the Nature Index p.164

doi: 10.1038/515164a

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Scientists cleared of quake deaths p.171

Appeals court says six scientists did not cause deaths in 2009 L'Aquila earthquake and cuts sentence of a government official.

doi: 10.1038/515171a

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Landing on a comet p.172

A graphical guide identifies the dangers ahead for the Philae probe.

doi: 10.1038/515172a

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Edits to ethics code rankle p.174

Clinical-trial obligations introduced into the Helsinki declaration called too onerous by some.

doi: 10.1038/515174a

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Gut–brain link grabs neuroscientists p.175

Idea that intestinal bacteria affect mental health gains ground.

doi: 10.1038/515175a

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Ethical dilemma for Ebola trials p.177

Public-health officials split on use of control groups in tests of experimental treatments.

doi: 10.1038/515177a

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News Features


Mental health: The great depression p.179


doi: 10.1038/515179a

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Mental health: A world of depression p.180


doi: 10.1038/515180a

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Medical research: If depression were cancer p.182


doi: 10.1038/515182a

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Depression: A change of mind p.185


doi: 10.1038/515185a

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News & Views


Depression: The best way forward p.200


doi: 10.1038/515200a

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Condensed-matter physics: Magnetic fields without magnetic fields p.202


doi: 10.1038/515202a

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Palaeontology: Mystery of the horrible hands solved p.203

モンゴルで見つかった7000万年前の恐竜デイノケイルス(Deinocheirus mirificus)の2組の化石には、これまで盗掘などで欠けていた部分も含まれており、最も不可解な種の1つとされてきたこの恐竜の真の姿が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13930

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High-temperature superconductivity: Electron mirages in an iron salt p.205


doi: 10.1038/515205a

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Neurobiology: Building a bigger brain p.206


doi: 10.1038/515206a

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Neuroscience: Towards unified vesicle endocytosis p.207


doi: 10.1038/nature13925

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Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism p.209

Whole-exome sequencing in a large autism study identifies over 100 autosomal genes that are likely to affect risk for the disorder; these genes, which show unusual evolutionary constraint against mutations, carry de novo loss-of-function mutations in over 5% of autistic subjects and many function in synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin-remodelling pathways.

doi: 10.1038/nature13772

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神経科学:de novoコード変異の自閉スペクトラム症への関与

The contribution of de novo coding mutations to autism spectrum disorder p.216

Family-based exome sequencing in a large autism study has identified 27 high-confidence gene targets and accurately estimates the contribution of both de novo gene-disrupting and missense mutations to the incidence of simplex autism, with target genes in affected females overlapping those in males of lower but not higher IQ; targets also overlap known targets for intellectual disability and schizophrenia, and are enriched for chromatin modifiers, FMRP-associated genes and embryonically expressed genes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13908

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Evolution of mosquito preference for humans linked to an odorant receptor p.222

The mosquito Aedes aegypti includes two subspecies, one of which shows a preference for biting humans, whereas the other prefers to bite non-human animals; genetic analysis reveals that changes in the mosquito odorant receptor Or4 contribute to the behavioural difference—in human-preferring mosquitoes, Or4 is more highly expressed and more sensitive to sulcatone, a compound present at high levels in human odour.

doi: 10.1038/nature13964

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Clathrin regenerates synaptic vesicles from endosomes p.228

Ultrastructural analysis of synaptic vesicle recycling reveals that clathrin is not required for the initial rapid step of vesicle recycling by ultrafast endocytosis at the plasma membrane and instead clathrin acts later at an endosome to regenerate synaptic vesicles; however, when ultrafast endocytosis does not occur (for example, in experiments at room temperature rather than physiological temperature), clathrin-mediated endocytosis does happen at the plasma membrane.

doi: 10.1038/nature13846

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The expanding fireball of Nova Delphini 2013 p.234

High spatial resolution is needed to study the early development of a nova; here measurements of the angular size and radial velocity of Nova Delphini 2013 reveal early structures in the ejected material and a geometric distance to the nova of about 4.5 kiloparsecs from the Sun.

doi: 10.1038/nature13834

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Experimental realization of the topological Haldane model with ultracold fermions p.237

The Haldane model, which predicts complex topological states of matter, has been implemented by placing ultracold atoms in a tunable optical lattice that was deformed and shaken.

doi: 10.1038/nature13915

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Observation of topological transitions in interacting quantum circuits p.241

Superconducting quantum circuits are used to directly observe and characterize topological phase transitions; this approach promises to be a powerful and general platform for characterizing topological phenomena in quantum systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature13891

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Interfacial mode coupling as the origin of the enhancement of Tc in FeSe films on SrTiO3 p.245

Films of iron selenide (FeSe) one unit cell thick grown on strontium titanate (SrTiO3 or STO) substrates have recently shown superconducting energy gaps opening at temperatures close to the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 kelvin), which is a record for the iron-based superconductors. The gap opening temperature usually sets the superconducting transition temperature Tc, as the gap signals the formation of Cooper pairs, the bound electron states responsible for superconductivity. To understand why Cooper pairs form at such high temperatures, we examine the role of the SrTiO3 substrate. Here we report high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy results that reveal an unexpected characteristic of the single-unit-cell FeSe/SrTiO3 system: shake-off bands suggesting the presence of bosonic modes, most probably oxygen optical phonons in SrTiO3 (refs 5, 6, 7), which couple to the FeSe electrons with only a small momentum transfer. Such interfacial coupling assists superconductivity in most channels, including those mediated by spin fluctuations. Our calculations suggest that this coupling is responsible for raising the superconducting gap opening temperature in single-unit-cell FeSe/SrTiO3.

doi: 10.1038/nature13894

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Formic-acid-induced depolymerization of oxidized lignin to aromatics p.249

A method for the depolymerization of oxidized lignin under mild conditions in aqueous formic acid is described that results in more than 60 wt% yield of low-molecular-mass aromatics.

doi: 10.1038/nature13867

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Subduction-driven recycling of continental margin lithosphere p.253

Seismic images of the subducted Atlantic slab under northeastern South America and the Alboran slab beneath the Gibraltar arc region show that subducting oceanic plates viscously entrain and remove the bottom of the continental thermal boundary layer from adjacent continental margins, driving surface tectonics and pre-conditioning the margins for further deformation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13878

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古生物学:巨大オルニトミモサウルス類Deinocheirus mirificusの長年の謎を解決

Resolving the long-standing enigmas of a giant ornithomimosaur Deinocheirus mirificus p.257

Two almost complete skeletons are presented for the theropod dinosaur Deinocheirus mirificus, revealing a humpbacked form with a duckbill-like skull.

doi: 10.1038/nature13874

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Comparative population genomics in animals uncovers the determinants of genetic diversity p.261

Genome-wide DNA polymorphism analysis across 76 animal species reveals a strong effect of ecological strategies, and particularly parental investment, on species levels of genetic diversity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13685

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Radial glia require PDGFD–PDGFRβ signalling in human but not mouse neocortex p.264

Evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex underlies many of our unique mental abilities. This expansion has been attributed to the increased proliferative potential of radial glia (RG; neural stem cells) and their subventricular dispersion from the periventricular niche during neocortical development. Such adaptations may have evolved through gene expression changes in RG. However, whether or how RG gene expression varies between humans and other species is unknown. Here we show that the transcriptional profiles of human and mouse neocortical RG are broadly conserved during neurogenesis, yet diverge for specific signalling pathways. By analysing differential gene co-expression relationships between the species, we demonstrate that the growth factor PDGFD is specifically expressed by RG in human, but not mouse, corticogenesis. We also show that the expression domain of PDGFRβ, the cognate receptor for PDGFD, is evolutionarily divergent, with high expression in the germinal region of dorsal human neocortex but not in the mouse. Pharmacological inhibition of PDGFD–PDGFRβ signalling in slice culture prevents normal cell cycle progression of neocortical RG in human, but not mouse. Conversely, injection of recombinant PDGFD or ectopic expression of constitutively active PDGFRβ in developing mouse neocortex increases the proportion of RG and their subventricular dispersion. These findings highlight the requirement of PDGFD–PDGFRβ signalling for human neocortical development and suggest that local production of growth factors by RG supports the expanded germinal region and progenitor heterogeneity of species with large brains.

doi: 10.1038/nature13973

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The participation of cortical amygdala in innate, odour-driven behaviour p.269

Innate behaviours are observed in naive animals without prior learning or experience, suggesting that the neural circuits that mediate these behaviours are genetically determined and stereotyped. The neural circuits that convey olfactory information from the sense organ to the cortical and subcortical olfactory centres have been anatomically defined, but the specific pathways responsible for innate responses to volatile odours have not been identified. Here we devise genetic strategies that demonstrate that a stereotyped neural circuit that transmits information from the olfactory bulb to cortical amygdala is necessary for innate aversive and appetitive behaviours. Moreover, we use the promoter of the activity-dependent gene arc to express the photosensitive ion channel, channelrhodopsin, in neurons of the cortical amygdala activated by odours that elicit innate behaviours. Optical activation of these neurons leads to appropriate behaviours that recapitulate the responses to innate odours. These data indicate that the cortical amygdala plays a critical role in generating innate odour-driven behaviours but do not preclude its participation in learned olfactory behaviours.

doi: 10.1038/nature13897

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A three-dimensional human neural cell culture model of Alzheimer’s disease p.274

Early-onset familial Alzheimer’s disease mutations induce both amyloid-β and tau pathologies in differentiated human neural stem cells in 3D cultures.

doi: 10.1038/nature13800

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Piezo1 integration of vascular architecture with physiological force p.279

The Piezo1 calcium-permeable channel is revealed to have a role in the vascular cellular response to shear stress; a mouse knockout reveals that this channel is also important for normal vascular development.

doi: 10.1038/nature13701

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The complete structure of the large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome p.283

The structure of the 39S large mitoribosome subunit is solved by cryo-electron microscopy at an impressive 3.4 Å resolution, revealing the location of 50 ribosomal proteins, the peptidyl transferase centre, the tRNAs within this active site, and the nascent peptide chain within the exit tunnel.

doi: 10.1038/nature13895

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Structural basis for the assembly of the Sxl–Unr translation regulatory complex p.287

The crystal structure of the RNA binding domains of Sxl and Unr with msl2 RNA shows that interwoven interactions establish cooperative assembly of the ternary complex, highlighting how binding of relatively general RNA binding domains to RNA can result in a unique and specific protein–RNA architecture.

doi: 10.1038/nature13693

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