Volume 514 Number 7523



The ice bucket p.403

Social-media fun for medical research bypasses animal sensitivities.

doi: 10.1038/514403b


A ripe time for gaining ground p.403

After three years of heated debate, the advocates and critics of gain-of-function research must work to agree on how best to regulate the work.

doi: 10.1038/514403a


Toxic influence p.404

Europe must act to stop livestock drugs from wiping out its vulture populations.

doi: 10.1038/514404a



US suspends risky disease research p.411

Government to cease funding gain-of-function studies that make viruses more dangerous, pending a safety assessment.

doi: 10.1038/514411a


US midterm elections offer little hope for science p.412

November vote is unlikely to break a political stalemate that has squeezed research funding.

doi: 10.1038/514412a


Oldest-known human genome sequenced p.413

DNA shows a group of modern humans roamed across Asia.

doi: 10.1038/514413a


Sun’s stroke keeps Kepler online p.414

Space telescope beats mechanical failures to begin a second mission that will trace new celestial targets.

doi: 10.1038/514414a


Data bank struggles as protein imaging ups its game p.416

Hybrid methods to solve structures of molecular machines create a storage headache.

doi: 10.1038/514416a

News Features


Human-subjects research: The ethics squad p.418


doi: 10.1038/514418a


The discovery of Homo floresiensis: Tales of the hobbit p.422


doi: 10.1038/514422a

News & Views


Climate change: A crack in the natural-gas bridge p.436


doi: 10.1038/nature13927


HIV: A stamp on the envelope p.437


doi: 10.1038/nature13926


Lung disease: Treatment by cell transplant p.438


doi: 10.1038/nature13758


Astronomy: Hurling comets around a planetary nursery p.440


doi: 10.1038/514440a


Physiology: Relax and come in p.441


doi: 10.1038/514441a


HIV: Potency needs constancy p.442


doi: 10.1038/514442a



Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia p.445

The high-quality genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from Siberia reveals that gene flow from Neanderthals into the ancestors of this individual had already occurred about 7,000 to 13,000 years earlier; genomic comparisons show that he belonged to a population that lived close in time to the separation of populations in east and west Eurasia and that may represent an early modern human radiation out of Africa that has no direct descendants today.

doi: 10.1038/nature13810


Pulmonary macrophage transplantation therapy p.450

This study reports the correction of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in Csf2rb–/– mice by a single transfer of either wild-type or gene-corrected macrophages directly to the lungs — the transplanted macrophages persisted for at least 1 year; this transplantation strategy obviated the need for myeloablation and immunosuppression and should be a feasible therapy for humans with hereditary PAP.

doi: 10.1038/nature13807

構造生物学:融合前のHIV-1 Env三量体の構造と免疫認識

Structure and immune recognition of trimeric pre-fusion HIV-1 Env p.455

A crystal structure of the human immunodeficiency virus Env trimer, used by the virus to infect cells, is determined here; the new structure, which shows the pre-fusion form of Env, increases our understanding of the fusion mechanism and of how the conformation of Env allows the virus to evade the immune response.

doi: 10.1038/nature13808



Two families of exocomets in the β Pictoris system p.462

Statistical analysis of over a thousand spectra of the star β Pictoris reveals that it has two kinds of exocomets circling it: old exhausted comets trapped in mean-motion resonance with a massive planet, and fragments of comets.

doi: 10.1038/nature13849


Characterizing and predicting the magnetic environment leading to solar eruptions p.465

Modelling the solar magnetic field using observations of the photospheric field in the four-day period preceding a coronal mass ejection shows that the formation and later ejection of a twisted rope of magnetic flux provides the physical mechanism responsible for the ejection.

doi: 10.1038/nature13815


Piezoelectricity of single-atomic-layer MoS2 for energy conversion and piezotronics p.470

The two-dimensional semiconducting material molybdenum disulphide shows strong piezoelectricity in its single-layered form, suggesting possible applications in nanoscale electromechanical devices for sensing and energy harvesting.

doi: 10.1038/nature13792


Identification of an iridium-containing compound with a formal oxidation state of IX p.475

The tetrahedral iridium tetroxide cation [IrO4]+, which has an iridium 5d0 valence electron configuration and a formal oxidation state of IX, is generated in the gas phase, identified by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy, and predicted, by quantum chemical calculations, to be the most stable of all possible [IrO4]+ isomers.

doi: 10.1038/nature13795


Methane dynamics regulated by microbial community response to permafrost thaw p.478

The abundance of key microbial lineages can be used to predict atmospherically relevant patterns in methane isotopes and the proportion of carbon metabolized to methane during permafrost thaw, suggesting that microbial ecology may be important in ecosystem-scale responses to global change.

doi: 10.1038/nature13798


Limited impact on decadal-scale climate change from increased use of natural gas p.482

It has been hoped that making abundant natural gas available by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) would reduce greenhouse gas emissions but now modelling shows that increased consumption will have limited effect on climate change.

doi: 10.1038/nature13837


Producing more grain with lower environmental costs p.486

In an experiment across China to test integrated soil–crop system management for rice, wheat and maize against current practice, improvements in grain yield are equivalent to high-input techniques, but nutrient use, nutrient loss and greenhouse gas emissions are lower than current practice.

doi: 10.1038/nature13609


A Hox regulatory network of hindbrain segmentation is conserved to the base of vertebrates p.490

Nested Hox expression domains are found in jawed vertebrates and in non-vertebrate chordates, but it is unclear whether there is a link between brain regionalization and Hox expression in jawless vertebrates; here, Hox expression is shown to be integrated with hindbrain segmentation in lampreys.

doi: 10.1038/nature13723


Pre-Columbian mycobacterial genomes reveal seals as a source of New World human tuberculosis p.494

Three 1,000-year-old mycobacterial genomes from Peruvian human skeletons reveal that a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex derived from seals caused human disease before contact in the Americas.

doi: 10.1038/nature13591


Dendritic cells control fibroblastic reticular network tension and lymph node expansion p.498

During inflammation, the lymph node stromal compartment is shown to accommodate high numbers of infiltrating lymphocytes by relaxing the cytoskeleton of fibroblastic reticular cells, allowing the latter to stretch and the lymph node to expand.

doi: 10.1038/nature13814


Diabetes recovery by age-dependent conversion of pancreatic δ-cells into insulin producers p.503

An investigation of the influence of age on the generation of insulin-producing cells after β-cell loss in mice reveals that, whereas α-cells can reprogram to produce insulin from puberty to adulthood, efficient reconstitution in the very young is through δ-cell reprogramming, leading to complete diabetes recovery.

doi: 10.1038/nature13633


High-fat-diet-mediated dysbiosis promotes intestinal carcinogenesis independently of obesity p.508

A high-fat diet promotes intestinal tumorigenesis independently of obesity in a mouse model with oncogene activation, by changing the composition of the gut microbiota and altering immune regulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13398


Contrasting roles of histone 3 lysine 27 demethylases in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia p.513

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) is a haematological malignancy with a poor prognosis and no available targeted therapies; now two histone H3 lysine 27 demethylases, JMJD3 and UTX, are shown to have contrasting roles in human T-ALL cells and a mouse model of the disease, and a small molecule demethylase inhibitor is found to inhibit the growth of T-ALL cell lines, introducing a potential therapeutic avenue for acute leukaemia.

doi: 10.1038/nature13605


Structure and mechanism of Zn2+-transporting P-type ATPases p.518

The X-ray crystal structures of a zinc-ion-transporting P-type ATPase are solved in a zinc-free, phosphoenzyme ‘ground’ state and in a transition state of dephosphorylation, characterizing these transporters of an essential micronutrient that is needed for many biological processes but is cytotoxic when free.

doi: 10.1038/nature13618

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