目次

Editorials

環境汚染度の低い調理用バイオマスストーブを普及させる取り組みが失敗に終わっており、この改善のためには新しい方法が求められる。

Clean break p.533

Improved biomass stoves are not popular, people everywhere deserve modern cooking methods.

doi: 10.1038/509533b

抗生物質耐性の脅威に対処するためには、既存薬の管理を強化し、有効に活用し、新薬の市場化を促進するという3段階で取り組むべきだ。

A three-step plan for antibiotics p.533

If the threat of antibiotic resistance is to be managed, existing drugs must be marshalled more effectively and new medicines must get to market fast.

doi: 10.1038/509533a

ネイチャー・パブリッシング・グループは、科学にとって重要な研究データを掲載するオンライン限定ジャーナルScientific Dataを創刊。

Welcome, Scientific Data! p.534

doi: 10.1038/509534a

News

副作用などの問題で人気の失われたインターロイキン2(IL-2)を用いたがんの免疫療法に、再び注目が。

Old cancer drug gets fresh look p.541

Refinements to disfavoured immune therapy offer safer, more effective treatment.

doi: 10.1038/509541a

米国の新しい北極調査船「シクーリアック」号が、いよいよ出航へ。

US Arctic research ship ready to cast off p.542

Long-awaited vessel Sikuliaq joins an ageing fleet.

doi: 10.1038/509542a

ますます増大するデータの処理に迫られ、科学者たちの目がクラウド・コンピューティングに。

Cloud computing beckons scientists p.543

Price and flexibility appeal as data sets grow.

doi: 10.1038/509543a

来年開設される英国フランシス・クリック研究所が、物理学の専門家を多数採用へ。

Biomedical institute opens its doors to physicists p.544

The development is part of a growing trend to tap physics expertise.

doi: 10.1038/509544a

ニワトリの家畜化の歴史を明らかにしようという研究計画が。

Chicken project gets off the ground p.546

Effort aims to unravel the history of bird’s domestication.

doi: 10.1038/509546a

News Features

世界の健康問題:調理に潜む危険

Global health: Deadly dinners p.548

世界人口の約3分の1が有害な煙を放出する調理用バイオマスストーブを利用しており、より環境汚染度の低いストーブを普及させる取り組みが行われているが、その努力は成功していない。

doi: 10.1038/509548a

理論物理学:「複雑性」に見えた希望

Theoretical physics: Complexity on the horizon p.552

計算機科学のために開発された概念「計算複雑性」が、一般相対性理論と量子力学の矛盾という、基礎物理学が抱えるパラドックスを解くカギになる可能性が出てきた。

doi: 10.1038/509552a

News & Views

気候科学:南半球の炭素シンク

Climate science: A sink down under p.566

南半球の半乾燥生態系が、大気中二酸化炭素の全球濃度の変化に大きな役割を果たしている可能性が明らかになった。このことは、この温室効果ガスの将来の濃度に影響を与える。

doi: 10.1038/nature13341

微生物学:耐性の広がりを抑える障壁

Microbiology: Barriers to the spread of resistance p.567

土壌微生物では、抗生物質に対する耐性を付与できる遺伝子が多数見つかっている。それにもかかわらず、こうした遺伝子のうちヒト病原体が共有しているものは少数だけで、土壌微生物群集内ではこうした遺伝子の伝播はめったに起こらないことが、新たな研究で明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13342

材料科学:包み込まれたエネルギー貯蔵庫

Materials science: Energy storage wrapped up p.568

電気を伝導するにはケーブルやワイヤーが使われるが、こうしたものはエネルギー貯蔵にも使えるのだろうか。この答えは、もし電気二重層を利用したエネルギー蓄積デバイスである「スーパーキャパシター」で覆われるなら、はっきりイエスである。この知見は多くの応用への道を開くことになりそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/509568a

発生遺伝学:カイコで性決定因子を持つのは雌

Developmental genetics: Female silkworms have the sex factor p.570

カイコガ(Bombyx mori)の性は、ある小分子RNAが存在するかどうかによって決まることが分かった。これは、タンパク質以外の分子が性決定を仲介することを示す初めての例だと考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/nature13336

精密測定:磁性を持つ陽子

Precision measurement: The magnetic proton p.571

これまでになく高い精度での陽子の磁性の測定が、1個の陽子を二重ペニングトラップと呼ばれるデバイス中に閉じ込めることで達成された。この結果は自然界の基本的な対称性の1つを調べる道を開く。

doi: 10.1038/509571a

心血管生物学:出生時の切り替え

Cardiovascular biology: Switched at birth p.572

哺乳類では、出生後の数日間に大気中酸素に曝露されることで、心筋細胞の増殖停止が引き起こされる。この知見は、低酸素環境内に生息しているゼブラフィッシュは成体でも心臓の再生が可能なことの説明になるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/509572a

免疫学:親和性が問題

Immunology: To affinity and beyond p.573

胚中心は、免疫応答の際にB細胞の増殖と変異が起こるホットスポットである。この胚中心にあるB細胞の追跡から、抗原の大半を細胞表面に提示しているB細胞が優位を占めるようにプログラムされていることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/509573a

Articles

プロテオミクス:ヒトプロテオームの概要マップ

A draft map of the human proteome p.575

A draft map of the human proteome is presented here, accounting for over 80% of the annotated protein-coding genes in humans; some novel protein-coding regions, including translated pseudogenes, non-coding RNAs and upstream open reading frames, are identified.

doi: 10.1038/nature13302

プロテオミクス:質量分析に基づくヒトプロテオームの概要

Mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome p.582

A mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome and a public database for analysis of proteome data are presented; assembled information is used to estimate the size of the protein-coding genome, to identify organ-specific proteins, proteins predicting drug resistance or sensitivity, and many translated long intergenic non-coding RNAs, and to reveal conserved control of protein abundance.

doi: 10.1038/nature13319

構造生物学:非コードRNAであるRsmZがタンパク質の「スポンジ」として作用する際の構造基盤

Structural basis of the non-coding RNA RsmZ acting as a protein sponge p.588

A novel combined NMR and EPR spectroscopy approach reveals the structure and assembly mechanism of a 70-kDa bacterial ribonucleoprotein complex acting as a protein sponge in translational regulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13271

Letters

宇宙:中心星の金属量から推定された系外惑星半径の3つの領域

Three regimes of extrasolar planet radius inferred from host star metallicities p.593

Analysis of the metallicities of more than 400 stars hosting 600 candidate extrasolar planets shows that the planets can be categorized by size into three populations — terrestrial-like planets, gas dwarf planets with rocky cores and hydrogen–helium envelopes, and ice or gas giant planets — on the basis of host star metallicity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13254

量子物理学:陽子の磁気モーメントの直接高精度測定

Direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton p.596

The magnetic moment of the proton is directly measured with unprecedented precision using a double Penning trap.

doi: 10.1038/nature13388

気候科学:全球炭素循環の年々変動に対する半乾燥生態系の寄与

Contribution of semi-arid ecosystems to interannual variability of the global carbon cycle p.600

The unusually large land carbon sink reported in 2011 can mostly be attributed to semi-arid vegetation growth in the Southern Hemisphere following increased rainfall and long-term greening trends.

doi: 10.1038/nature13376

気候科学:暴風によって生じる海氷破壊と氷域に対する影響

Storm-induced sea-ice breakup and the implications for ice extent p.604

Concurrent observations at multiple locations indicate that storm-generated ocean waves propagating through Antarctic sea ice can transport enough energy to break first-year sea ice hundreds of kilometres from the ice edge, which is much farther than would be predicted by the commonly assumed exponential wave decay.

doi: 10.1038/nature13262

進化:硬骨魚類様の鰓弓を有する古生代のサメ

A Palaeozoic shark with osteichthyan-like branchial arches p.608

A description of the gill skeleton of a very early fossil shark-like fish shows that it bears more resemblance to gill skeletons from bony fishes rather than to those from modern cartilaginous fishes, suggesting that modern sharks are not anatomically primitive, as previously thought.

doi: 10.1038/nature13195

微生物生態学:細菌の系統発生学的特性が、さまざまな生息域にわたる土壌のレジストームを形作っている

Bacterial phylogeny structures soil resistomes across habitats p.612

Functional metagenomic selections for resistance to 18 antibiotics in 18 different soils reveal that bacterial community composition is the primary determinant of soil antibiotic resistance gene content.

doi: 10.1038/nature13377

神経科学:表皮メルケル細胞は哺乳類の触覚受容器を調整する機械的刺激感知細胞である

Epidermal Merkel cells are mechanosensory cells that tune mammalian touch receptors p.617

The cellular basis of touch has long been debated, in particular the relationship between sensory neurons and non-neuronal cells; a mouse study uses optogenetics to identify their distinct and collaborative roles, with skin-derived Merkel cells both transducing touch and actively tuning responses of touch-sensitive neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature13250

神経科学:Piezo2はメルケル細胞の機械刺激伝達に必要である

Piezo2 is required for Merkel-cell mechanotransduction p.622

A mouse study shows that non-neuronal epidermal Merkel cells aid fine-touch perception in the skin through their expression of the Piezo2 mechanosensitive cation channel which then actively tunes the response to touch in adjacent somatosensory neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature13251

神経科学:マウンティングと攻撃は視床下部腹内側部のEsr1+ニューロンによって段階的に調節されている

Scalable control of mounting and attack by Esr1+ neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus p.627

Social behaviours, such as aggression or mating, proceed through a series of appetitive and consummatory phases that are associated with increasing levels of arousal. How such escalation is encoded in the brain, and linked to behavioural action selection, remains an unsolved problem in neuroscience. The ventrolateral subdivision of the murine ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) contains neurons whose activity increases during male–male and male–female social encounters. Non-cell-type-specific optogenetic activation of this region elicited attack behaviour, but not mounting. We have identified a subset of VMHvl neurons marked by the oestrogen receptor 1 (Esr1), and investigated their role in male social behaviour. Optogenetic manipulations indicated that Esr1+ (but not Esr1) neurons are sufficient to initiate attack, and that their activity is continuously required during ongoing agonistic behaviour. Surprisingly, weaker optogenetic activation of these neurons promoted mounting behaviour, rather than attack, towards both males and females, as well as sniffing and close investigation. Increasing photostimulation intensity could promote a transition from close investigation and mounting to attack, within a single social encounter. Importantly, time-resolved optogenetic inhibition experiments revealed requirements for Esr1+ neurons in both the appetitive (investigative) and the consummatory phases of social interactions. Combined optogenetic activation and calcium imaging experiments in vitro, as well as c-Fos analysis in vivo, indicated that increasing photostimulation intensity increases both the number of active neurons and the average level of activity per neuron. These data suggest that Esr1+ neurons in VMHvl control the progression of a social encounter from its appetitive through its consummatory phases, in a scalable manner that reflects the number or type of active neurons in the population.

doi: 10.1038/nature13169

発生生物学:雌特異的な単一のpiRNAがカイコにおける性決定の最上位因子である

A single female-specific piRNA is the primary determiner of sex in the silkworm p.633

It is known that in the silkworm (Bombyx mori), males have two Z sex chromosomes whereas females have Z and W and the W chromosome has a dominant role in female determination; here a single female-specific W-chromosome-derived PIWI-interacting RNA is shown to be the feminizing factor in B. mori.

doi: 10.1038/nature13315

免疫:増殖と超変異獲得の調節による胚中心でのクローン選択

Clonal selection in the germinal centre by regulated proliferation and hypermutation p.637

Clonal expansion and hypermutation of B cells in the germinal centre are regulated by the amount of antigen that the B cells present to follicular helper T cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature13300

医学:ジクロロ酢酸は血管傷害の前臨床動物モデルで再狭窄を防止する

Dichloroacetate prevents restenosis in preclinical animal models of vessel injury p.641

During development of myointimal hyperplasia in human arteries, smooth muscle cells have hyperpolarized mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), high proliferation and apoptosis resistance; PDK2 is a key regulatory protein whose activation is necessary for myointima formation, and its blockade with dichloroacetate prevents Δψm hyperpolarization, facilitates apoptosis and reduces myointima formation in injured arteries, without preventing vessel re-endothelialization, possibly representing a novel strategy to prevent proliferative vascular diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature13232

「Journal home」に戻る

プライバシーマーク制度