Research press release


Nature Sustainability

Sustainability: Net climate benefit from electric cars and home heaters

世界の59地域のうち53地域で、電気自動車や家庭の暖房に使われているヒートポンプによる炭素排出は、ガソリン自動車や化石燃料を使うボイラーより平均すると少ないことを示した報告が、Nature Sustainability に掲載される。


今回、Florian Knoblochたちは、炭素排出のライフサイクルアセスメントに関する文献の見積もりを分析し、経済の電力セクター、輸送セクター、暖房セクターを表現する統合アセスメントモデルを、スイス、米国、南アフリカ、ブラジルを含む世界中の59地域に適用した。著者たちが電気自動車とヒートポンプのライフサイクル全体の排出量を調べたところ、電気自動車とヒートポンプによる現在と将来のライフサイクル排出量は、さまざまな技術シナリオと政策シナリオの下で、個々の国家の大半だけでなく全球的に、平均するとガソリン自動車や化石燃料ボイラーより少ないことが見いだされた。


Electric vehicles and heat pumps used for home heating are, on average, less emission-intensive than petrol cars and fossil boilers in 53 out of 59 world regions, according to a paper published in Nature Sustainability.

Passenger road transport and household heating generate 24% of global fuel-combustion carbon emissions. The electrification of both systems would curb tailpipe and on-site carbon emissions (direct emissions), but would result in indirect emissions from the generation of electricity. Life-cycle emission assessments, which estimate the environmental impacts of a product or activity, include both direct and indirect emissions measurements and can help determine the net climate change benefit of electrifying transportation and heating.

Florian Knobloch and colleagues analysed estimates from life-cycle assessment literature and used an integrated assessment model representing the electricity, transportation and heating sectors of the economy for 59 regions across the globe — including Switzerland, United States, South Africa and Brazil. The authors studied the full life-cycle emissions from electric vehicles and heat pumps over time. They found that current and future life-cycle emissions from electric vehicles and heat pumps — under different technologies and policy scenarios — are on average lower than those of petrol cars and fossil-fuel boilers globally, as well as in most individual nations.

The findings suggest that even if future electrification is not matched by rapid power sector decarbonization, shifting to electric vehicles and heat pumps could reduce emissions in most world regions, compared to fossil-fuel-based alternatives.

doi: 10.1038/s41893-020-0488-7


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