Research press release


Nature Immunology

Skin oils activate T cells


皮脂は、毛包や汗腺から分泌される無極性の脂質やワックス様の物質の混合物で、通常は皮膚の表面を覆っている。Annemieke De Jongたちは、ヒトの皮脂腺が大量に生産しているこれらの無極性の脂質はCD1a拘束性T細胞を活性化するが、極性頭部を持つ脂質抗原はCD1a拘束性T細胞を阻害することを発見した。無極性脂質は主に皮膚の外側の層に限られて存在する一方、CD1aは、表皮中の抗原提示細胞で高度に発現されている。外傷や感染、皮膚バリアの損傷によって、表面の皮脂が皮膚の深層へと入り込み、これがCD1a拘束性T細胞とバリア免疫の活性化を促している可能性がある。

A subpopulation of T cells, mainly localized in the human skin, is activated by specific skin oils (lipids), such as free fatty acids and wax esters, according to a report published in Nature Immunology. Since skin disorders such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are associated with changes in skin lipids composition, these findings could provide candidate mechanisms by which alterations in lipid content might influence disease.

Sebum is a natural mixture of apolar skin lipids and waxy substances secreted through hair follicles or sweat glands that normally coats the skin surface. Annemieke De Jong and colleagues find that such apolar lipids, which are produced in large quantity by human sebaceous glands, activate CD1a-restricted T cells, while lipid antigens with polar heads are inhibitory to these T cells. Apolar lipids are largely restricted to the outer layers of the skin, while CD1a is highly expressed on antigen presenting cells in the epidermis. Trauma, infection or other breaches in skin barrier could transfer surface skin oils to deeper layers, promoting activation of CD1a-restricted T cells and barrier immunity.

doi: 10.1038/ni.2790


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