目次

Editorials

米国トランプ大統領が指名したFDA長官は、経験豊富で、審査の効率化も期待できるが、製薬業界との深いつながりには目を光らせる必要がある。

The FDA chief must not be a proxy for industry p.463

Trump’s pick for the US regulatory agency will bring experience and a clear vision — as well as ties to industry.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21661

Full Text

NIH予算の削減は、米国の科学研究に幅広く、計り知れないダメージをもたらすだろう。

Trump faces backlash on health-agency cuts p.463

Crippling the US National Institutes of Health might increase resistance to other attacks on science.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21664

Full Text

ポジティブな感情が伝染することが、ニュージーランドのオウムでも証明された。

Birds of play demonstrate the infectious power of emotion p.464

New Zealand parrots provide the latest support for a popular theory of crowd behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/543464a

Full Text

News

米国トランプ政権が、エネルギー、環境、健康科学分野で研究予算の大幅な削減を。

US science agencies face deep cuts in Trump budget p.471

The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institutes of Health are big losers — but planetary science at NASA stands to gain.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21652

Full Text

トポロジー学者が、通常の幾何学が通用しない「ゆがんだ」世界をVRで体験できるソフトを公開へ。

Mathematicians create warped worlds in virtual reality p.473

Immersive experience set to become accessible to all.

doi: 10.1038/543473a

Full Text

韓国では、大統領弾劾が基礎研究の助成のあり方を変える好機に。

South Korea’s scientists seek change amid political chaos p.474

President’s impeachment creates opportunity to shift how nation supports basic research.

doi: 10.1038/543474a

Full Text

さまざまな研究の対象になっているアフリカの狩猟採集民サン人が、独自の研究倫理規定を制定。

South Africa’s San people issue ethics code to scientists p.475

The indigenous people — known for their click languages — are the first in Africa to draft guidelines for researchers.

doi: 10.1038/543475a

Full Text

今年のアーベル賞は、データ解析に広く応用されるウェーブレット理論への貢献で、フランスのYves Meyer氏に。

‘Wavelet revolution’ pioneer scoops top maths award p.476

Yves Meyer wins the Abel Prize for role in theory with data applications from digital cinema to pinpointing gravitational waves.

doi: 10.1038/543476a

Full Text

News Features

天文学:ブラックホールを捉える

How to hunt for a black hole with a telescope the size of Earth p.478

世界各地のさまざまな電波望遠鏡をリンクさせることで、「事象の地平線」を画像化しようとする望遠鏡計画(Event Horizon Telescope)がいよいよ始動する。

doi: 10.1038/543478a

Full Text

News & Views

古生物学:恐竜の分類

Palaeontology: Dividing the dinosaurs p.494

標準的な恐竜の進化系統樹には、「骨盤が鳥類に似た」鳥盤目と「骨盤が爬虫類に似た」竜盤目という2つの主要な枝がある。今回見直された系統樹は、恐竜のさまざまな分類群の間の類縁関係に関する多くの考えに異を唱えている。

doi: 10.1038/543494a

Full Text

微生物学:細菌の伝染戦術

Microbiology: Bacterial transmission tactics p.495

今回、肺に感染するMycobacterium abscessus菌株のゲノム塩基配列解読によって、この細菌の感染モードが環境経由のものからヒト間伝染に変わる可能性が示唆されている。この知見は、臨床に影響を及ぼす。

doi: 10.1038/543495a

Full Text

物性物理学:電子ビームによってマッピングされた振動

Condensed-matter physics: Vibrations mapped by an electron beam p.497

今回、最先端の電子顕微鏡法を用いてナノ構造体の振動励起がマッピングされた。この結果は、こうした励起に関する理解を深め、ナノ構造体の設計に役立つと思われる。

doi: 10.1038/543497a

Full Text

生態学:マルハナバチが住み良い環境

Ecology: A helping habitat for bumblebees p.498

今回、マルハナバチのコロニーの生産性に土地利用の質が影響を及ぼすことが示され、空間的かつ時間的に資源を利用できることが、複数世代にわたる生存性を高めるのに重要であることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature21897

Full Text

HIV:干し草の山に潜む針を見つける

Finding latent needles in a haystack p.499

抗レトロウイルス療法によってエイズの発症を防ぐことができるが、少数の細胞が感染したままであるため、この病気は治せない。今回、感染した細胞のマーカーとなるタンパク質が発見され、潜在するウイルスリザーバーの重要な研究が容易になると思われる。

doi: 10.1038/nature21899

Full Text

Articles

古生物学:恐竜の類縁関係と初期進化に関する新仮説

A new hypothesis of dinosaur relationships and early dinosaur evolution p.501

Analysis of a wide range of dinosaurs and dinosauromorphs recovers a sister-taxon relationship between Ornithischia and Theropoda, calling for the redefinition of all the major clades within Dinosauria and the revival of the clade Ornithoscelida.

doi: 10.1038/nature21700

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

神経科学:自閉症関連遺伝子Ube3aとてんかん発作はVTAでCbln1を抑制することにより社会性を低下させる

Autism gene Ube3a and seizures impair sociability by repressing VTA Cbln1 p.507

Increasing expression of the autism-associated gene Ube3a, either alone or in combination with seizures, not only impairs sociability in mice but also reduces expression of the synaptic organizer Cbln1 in the ventral tegmental area, thus weakening glutamatergic transmission.

doi: 10.1038/nature21678

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

植物科学:根の微生物相はリン酸ストレスと免疫を直接結び付ける

Root microbiota drive direct integration of phosphate stress and immunity p.513

In Arabidopsis thaliana, a genetic network that controls the phosphate stress response also influences the structure of the root microbiome community, even under non-stress phosphate conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature21417

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

分子生物学:ゲノム構造マッピングで捉えられた多数のエンハンサーの複雑な接触

Complex multi-enhancer contacts captured by genome architecture mapping p.519

A technique called genome architecture mapping (GAM) involves sequencing DNA from a large number of thin nuclear cryosections to develop a map of genome organization without the limitations of existing 3C-based methods.

doi: 10.1038/nature21411

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

Letters

量子物理学:古典限界を超えるスピン角度とスピン振幅の同時追跡

Simultaneous tracking of spin angle and amplitude beyond classical limits p.525

Simultaneous precise measurement of the non-commuting observables spin angle and spin amplitude is achieved by directing the error due to quantum measurement back-action into an unmeasured spin component.

doi: 10.1038/nature21434

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

物性物理学:単一ナノキューブにおける振動の表面モードとバルクモードのマッピング

Mapping vibrational surface and bulk modes in a single nanocube p.529

Spatial mapping of optical and acoustic, bulk and surface vibrational modes in magnesium oxide nanocubes is demonstrated using a single electron probe.

doi: 10.1038/nature21699

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

材料科学:等方的な弾性スティフネスの理論限界にあるメカニカル・メタマテリアル

Mechanical metamaterials at the theoretical limit of isotropic elastic stiffness p.533

Finite-element models are used to identify a material geometry that achieves the theoretical bounds on isotropic elastic stiffness—a combination closed-cell cubic and octet foam.

doi: 10.1038/nature21075

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

有機化学:触媒的二官能性テンプレートによって誘導される部位選択的遠隔C–H活性化

Remote site-selective C–H activation directed by a catalytic bifunctional template p.538

A method is described for selectively activating remote C–H bonds in heterocycles by using a catalytic template that binds by reversible coordination instead of a covalent linkage, removing the need for specific functional groups on which to attach the template.

doi: 10.1038/nature21418

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

地球科学:(Al,Fe)を含むブリッジマナイトの弾性データから得られたFe3+に富むパイロライト的下部マントルの証拠

Evidence for a Fe3+-rich pyrolitic lower mantle from (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite elasticity data p.543

The chemical composition of Earth’s lower mantle can be constrained by combining seismological observations with mineral physics elasticity measurements. However, the lack of laboratory data for Earth’s most abundant mineral, (Mg,Fe,Al)(Al,Fe,Si)O3 bridgmanite (also known as silicate perovskite), has hampered any conclusive result. Here we report single-crystal elasticity data on (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite (Mg0.9Fe0.1Si0.9Al0.1)O3 measured using high-pressure Brillouin spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our measurements show that the elastic behaviour of (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite is markedly different from the behaviour of the MgSiO3 endmember. We use our data to model seismic wave velocities in the top portion of the lower mantle, assuming a pyrolitic mantle composition and accounting for depth-dependent changes in iron partitioning between bridgmanite and ferropericlase. We find excellent agreement between our mineral physics predictions and the seismic Preliminary Reference Earth Model down to at least 1,200 kilometres depth, indicating chemical homogeneity of the upper and shallow lower mantle. A high Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio of about two in shallow-lower-mantle bridgmanite is required to match seismic data, implying the presence of metallic iron in an isochemical mantle. Our calculated velocities are in increasingly poor agreement with those of the lower mantle at depths greater than 1,200 kilometres, indicating either a change in bridgmanite cation ordering or a decrease in the ferric iron content of the lower mantle.

doi: 10.1038/nature21390

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

生態学:マルハナバチの家系の生存は質の高い景観によって促進される

Bumblebee family lineage survival is enhanced in high-quality landscapes p.547

Analysis of three wild-caught bumblebee species shows that family lineage survival and persistence is significantly increased between successive colony cycle stages with the proportion of high-value foraging habitat near the natal colony.

doi: 10.1038/nature21709

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

遺伝学:KRABジンクフィンガータンパク質は遺伝子調節ネットワークの進化に寄与する

KRAB zinc-finger proteins contribute to the evolution of gene regulatory networks p.550

Genomic analyses of KRAB-containing zinc-finger proteins and the transposable elements to which they bind show that a co-evolutionary arms race was not the only driver of their evolution.

doi: 10.1038/nature21683

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

生態生理学:植物プランクトンは乱流の刺激に応答して移動戦略を能動的に多様化させることができる

Phytoplankton can actively diversify their migration strategy in response to turbulent cues p.555

Here, marine phytoplankton are shown to diversify their migratory strategy in response to turbulent cues through a rapid change in shape, thus challenging a fundamental paradigm in oceanography that phytoplankton are passively at the mercy of ocean turbulence.

doi: 10.1038/nature21415

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

ウイルス学:早期の抗体療法によりSHIVに対して長期間持続する免疫を誘導できる

Early antibody therapy can induce long-lasting immunity to SHIV p.559

Early administration of broadly neutralizing antibodies in a macaque SHIV infection model is associated with very low levels of persistent viraemia, which leads to the establishment of T-cell immunity and resultant long-term infection control.

doi: 10.1038/nature21435

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

ウイルス学:CD32aは複製可能プロウイルスを含んだCD4 T細胞HIVリザーバーのマーカーである

CD32a is a marker of a CD4 T-cell HIV reservoir harbouring replication-competent proviruses p.564

CD32a expression is induced on the surface of HIV-1-infected quiescent CD4 T cells, and could thus be used as a biomarker to facilitate future study of how the virus persists in cellular reservoirs in infected hosts.

doi: 10.1038/nature21710

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

発生生物学:DND1はCCR4–NOT複合体を標的mRNAへ誘導することで生殖幹細胞を維持する

DND1 maintains germline stem cells via recruitment of the CCR4–NOT complex to target mRNAs p.568

The vertebrate-conserved and germline-specific RNA-binding protein DND1 recruits the CCR4–NOT deadenylase complex to destabilize its mRNA targets and is required for the maintenance of germline stem cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature21690

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

分子生物学:RNA m6Aメチル化は紫外線によるDNA損傷応答を調節する

RNA m6A methylation regulates the ultraviolet-induced DNA damage response p.573

Cell proliferation and survival require the faithful maintenance and propagation of genetic information, which are threatened by the ubiquitous sources of DNA damage present intracellularly and in the external environment. A system of DNA repair, called the DNA damage response, detects and repairs damaged DNA and prevents cell division until the repair is complete. Here we report that methylation at the 6 position of adenosine (m6A) in RNA is rapidly (within 2 min) and transiently induced at DNA damage sites in response to ultraviolet irradiation. This modification occurs on numerous poly(A)+ transcripts and is regulated by the methyltransferase METTL3 (methyltransferase-like 3) and the demethylase FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated protein). In the absence of METTL3 catalytic activity, cells showed delayed repair of ultraviolet-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine adducts and elevated sensitivity to ultraviolet, demonstrating the importance of m6A in the ultraviolet-responsive DNA damage response. Multiple DNA polymerases are involved in the ultraviolet response, some of which resynthesize DNA after the lesion has been excised by the nucleotide excision repair pathway, while others participate in trans-lesion synthesis to allow replication past damaged lesions in S phase. DNA polymerase κ (Pol κ), which has been implicated in both nucleotide excision repair and trans-lesion synthesis, required the catalytic activity of METTL3 for immediate localization to ultraviolet-induced DNA damage sites. Importantly, Pol κ overexpression qualitatively suppressed the cyclobutane pyrimidine removal defect associated with METTL3 loss. Thus, we have uncovered a novel function for RNA m6A modification in the ultraviolet-induced DNA damage response, and our findings collectively support a model in which m6A RNA serves as a beacon for the selective, rapid recruitment of Pol κ to damage sites to facilitate repair and cell survival.

doi: 10.1038/nature21671

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

「Journal home」に戻る

プライバシーマーク制度