Volume 543 Number 7643



Regulatory reform puts US waters in jeopardy p.5

The Clean Water Rule is under threat — but it is grounded in science and should be strengthened, not repeal.

doi: 10.1038/543005a


Data on movements of refugees and migrants are flawed p.5

Accurate and timely information on the flow of people is crucial for policymaking and apolitical interpretations.

doi: 10.1038/543005b

英国のSFコミック誌『2000 AD』の40周年を祝う。

Sci-fi comic still has thrill power p.6

After 40 years, 2000 AD deserves to be known for more than Judge Dredd.

doi: 10.1038/543006a



African countries mobilize to battle invasive caterpillar p.13

Authorities and researchers ramp up their efforts to tackle the invasive fall armyworm.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21527


A giant neuron found wrapped around entire mouse brain p.14

3D reconstructions show a 'crown of thorns' shape stemming from a region linked to consciousness.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21539


The drug-resistant bacteria that pose the greatest health threats p.15

World Health Organization publishes list that it hopes will focus development of antibiotics.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21550


Astronomers grapple with new era of fast radio bursts p.16

Signals have progressed from astronomical peculiarity to mainstream research area.

doi: 10.1038/543016a


Hepatitis C drugs re-energize global fight over patents p.17

Lawsuits in India and Argentina seek to reduce drug costs by allowing generic versions of antiviral treatments.

doi: 10.1038/543017a


How to kill wild animals humanely for conservation p.18

An international group offers guidance to help reduce pain and suffering in animals destined for culling.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.21536

News Features


Human migration p.21


doi: 10.1038/543021a


What the numbers say about refugees p.22


doi: 10.1038/543022a


Hunted, haunted, stateless and scared: the stories of refugee scientists p.24


doi: 10.1038/543024a

News & Views


Materials science: Lessons from tooth enamel p.42


doi: 10.1038/543042a


Cell biology: Stretched divisions p.43


doi: 10.1038/nature21502


Geoscience: Subduction undone p.44


doi: 10.1038/543044a


Cardiovascular disease: Commonality with cancer p.45


doi: 10.1038/nature21505


Quantum physics: A solid more fluid than a fluid p.47


doi: 10.1038/543047a


Immunology: T-cell tweaks to target tumours p.48


doi: 10.1038/nature21506


Biochemistry: Origin of a key player in methane biosynthesis p.49


doi: 10.1038/nature21507



The integral role of iron in ocean biogeochemistry p.51

doi: 10.1038/nature21058



Evidence for early life in Earth’s oldest hydrothermal vent precipitates p.60

Perhaps the earliest known signs of life have been found in Quebec, where features such as haematite tubes suggest that filamentous microbes lived around hydrothermal vents at least 3,770 million years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature21377


Whole-genome landscape of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours p.65

The genomes of 102 primary pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours have been sequenced, revealing mutations in genes with functions such as chromatin remodelling, DNA damage repair, mTOR activation and telomere maintenance, and a greater-than-expected contribution from germ line mutations.

doi: 10.1038/nature21063


Intragenic DNA methylation prevents spurious transcription initiation p.72

Intragenic DNA methylation, dependent on Dnmt3b, protects the gene body from spurious entry of RNA Polymerase II and aberrant transcription initiation events.

doi: 10.1038/nature21373


Elucidation of the biosynthesis of the methane catalyst coenzyme F430 p.78

The enzymes and pathway involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme F430 are identified, completing our understanding of how members of the cyclic modified tetrapyrrole family are constructed.

doi: 10.1038/nature21427



The response of relativistic outflowing gas to the inner accretion disk of a black hole p.83

X-ray detection of an ultrafast outflow of gas is strongly linked with energy emission from the inner accretion disk of a black hole, suggesting that X-rays ionize the outflowing disk wind.

doi: 10.1038/nature21385


Supersolid formation in a quantum gas breaking a continuous translational symmetry p.87

A supersolid with continuous translational symmetry breaking along one direction is realized by symmetrically coupling a Bose–Einstein condensate to the modes of two optical cavities.

doi: 10.1038/nature21067


A stripe phase with supersolid properties in spin–orbit-coupled Bose–Einstein condensates p.91

Spin–orbit coupling in Bose–Einstein condensates creates a density modulation, which is a stripe phase with supersolid properties.

doi: 10.1038/nature21431


Abiotic tooth enamel p.95

Nanometre-scale columnar structures in tooth enamel inspire novel nanocomposites containing layers of vertically aligned nanowires, produced by layer-by-layer fabrication and combining high values of both storage modulus and energy dissipation.

doi: 10.1038/nature21410


Crystallization of silicon dioxide and compositional evolution of the Earth’s core p.99

Melting experiments with liquid Fe–Si–O alloy at the pressure of the Earth’s core reveal that the crystallization of silicon dioxide leads to core convection and a dynamo.

doi: 10.1038/nature21367


Prefrontal cortex output circuits guide reward seeking through divergent cue encoding p.103

Neurons that project from the prefrontal cortex to either the nucleus accumbens or paraventricular thalamus receive different inputs, differentially encode reward-predictive cues, and have opposing effects on reward seeking during cue presentation.

doi: 10.1038/nature21376


Complement drives glucosylceramide accumulation and tissue inflammation in Gaucher disease p.108

Complement-activating glycosylceramide-specific autoantibodies drive a self-propagating cycle of glycosylceramide accumulation and inflammation in Gaucher disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature21368


Targeting a CAR to the TRAC locus with CRISPR/Cas9 enhances tumour rejection p.113

Introducing chimeric antigen receptors into the endogenous T-cell receptor locus reduces tonic signalling, averts accelerated T-cell differentiation and delays T-cell exhaustion, leading to enhanced function and anti-tumour efficacy compared to random integrations.

doi: 10.1038/nature21405


Mechanical stretch triggers rapid epithelial cell division through Piezo1 p.118

The stretch-activated channel Piezo1 controls homeostatic epithelial cell numbers by activating cells to divide rapidly when under stretch strain from low density, and by activating cells to extrude and die when cells are under crowding strain.

doi: 10.1038/nature21407


Extrachromosomal oncogene amplification drives tumour evolution and genetic heterogeneity p.122

Circular extrachromosomal DNA is found in nearly half of human cancers of a wide variety of histologic types, increasing the copy number of driver oncogenes and intratumoral heterogeneity more effectively than chromosomal amplification and contributing to tumor evolution.

doi: 10.1038/nature21356


Untimely expression of gametogenic genes in vegetative cells causes uniparental disomy p.126

Uniparental disomy in fission yeast is triggered by aberrant expression of gametogenic genes in vegetative cells, and is associated with the activation of meiotic cohesin Rec8 in cells with defects in the RNA interference machinery.

doi: 10.1038/nature21372


Light-induced structural changes and the site of O=O bond formation in PSII caught by XFEL p.131

A new approach, time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography, is used to view the intermediate states of a photosystem complex following illumination, shedding light on proton transfer and O=O bond formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature21400

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