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Editorials

米国で幹細胞治療の承認が下りないのは、FDAの審査が厳しいからではなくFDAが有効性・安全性を重視しているためだ。

FDA should stand firm on stem-cell treatments p.7

US regulators must regain the upper hand in the approval system.

doi: 10.1038/535007b

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博士論文の執筆は研究者にとっては重要な節目だが、そのやり方は時代に合わせた変化が必要だ。

The past, present and future of the PhD thesis p.7

Writing a PhD thesis is a personal and professional milestone for many researchers. But the process needs to change with the times.

doi: 10.1038/535007a

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ジカウイルスへの関心を契機に、先天性異常について幅広く研究を進めるべきだ。

Use Zika to renew focus on birth-defect research p.8

The high-profile of the virus can kick-start work on long-standing problems.

doi: 10.1038/535008a

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News

米国の科学技術担当大統領補佐官John Holdrenが振り返る、ホワイトハウスでの8年間。

Obama’s top scientist talks shrinking budgets, Donald Trump, and his biggest regret p.15

John Holdren tells Nature about the highs and lows of nearly eight years in the White House.

doi: 10.1038/535015a

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ジカウイルス問題がきっかけで、より深刻な脅威をもたらしている先天性サイトメガロウイルス感染症にも関心が。

Zika raises profile of more common birth-defect virus p.17

Cytomegalovirus is a much greater global problem than Zika.

doi: 10.1038/535017a

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アマゾン熱帯雨林の今年の雨季降水量が異常に低く、今後、山火事が記録的に頻発する恐れが。

Dry Amazon could see record fire season p.18

Forecasters warn that high ocean temperatures presage intense blazes in rainforest.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20190

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米国政府の提案したヒト対象研究の規制改革案に、全米アカデミーズが「ノー」を。

Science academies blast US government’s planned research-ethics reforms p.18

Panel recommends scrapping proposed changes to 'Common Rule' on human-subjects research.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20191

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深宇宙探査用の、キューブサットと呼ばれる超小型人工衛星が続々と開発され、打ち上げが長蛇の列に。

CubeSats set for deep space — if they can hitch a ride p.19

Shoebox-sized craft face a wait to be propelled beyond Earth’s orbit.

doi: 10.1038/535019a

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News Features

教育:博士論文を振り返って

Back to the thesis p.22

徹夜、誤字・脱字、自信喪失や絶望など、3人の一流科学者が、自分にとって博士号とはどのようなものだったかを語る。

doi: 10.1038/535022a

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教育:博士論文のこれから

What’s the point of the PhD thesis? p.26

博士号は時代に合わせて少しずつ変わってきており、博士論文や口頭試問にも変化が求められている。

doi: 10.1038/535026a

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News & Views

宇宙物理学:失われた人工衛星から得られた希少なデータ

Astrophysics: Rare data from a lost satellite p.40

天文衛星の「ひとみ」は、地球との通信が途絶える直前に、ペルセウス座銀河団中でのガスの動きを観測した。この知見は銀河団の物理学や宇宙論の研究にとって非常に貴重なものだ。

doi: 10.1038/535040a

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神経科学:記憶分子を求めて

Neuroscience: In search of the memory molecule p.41

タンパク質のPKM-ζは齧歯類で記憶維持の調節に関わっていると考えられてきたが、この説には疑問が投げ掛けられてきた。このタンパク質のまた別のアイソフォームが、PKM-ζが失われた際のバックアップとして作用することが明らかになり、このような論争に影響を及ぼしそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature18903

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化学物理学:光誘起する反応の量子制御

Chemical physics: Quantum control of light-induced reactions p.42

極低温分子が光によって解離する仕組みの研究から、以前に観測されたことのない、予想外の量子効果が明らかになった。この研究は、量子光学研究に新たな道を開く。

doi: 10.1038/535042a

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保全:熱帯雨林が掲げる「邪魔しないで」のサイン

Conservation: The rainforest's 'do not disturb' signs p.44

アマゾン熱帯雨林のこれまで撹乱されたことのない地域で起こっている人為起源の撹乱は、森林伐採がもたらすのと同じくらい深刻な生物多様性喪失を引き起こしかねないことが、今回明らかになった。森林の質を保存するには、緊急な政策的介入が必要である。

doi: 10.1038/nature18901

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計算論的神経科学:動き検出系は種によっていろいろ

Computational neuroscience: Species-specific motion detectors p.45

多様な神経機構が、動物に視覚的動きの方向性検出を可能にしている。今回、眼球とほぼ同じサイズの単純な回路で、このような多様性の一部を説明できる可能性が、計算論的モデルによって示された。

doi: 10.1038/nature18454

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Articles

計算論的神経科学:哺乳類網膜で方向選択性を生み出す種特異的な神経結合

Species-specific wiring for direction selectivity in the mammalian retina p.105

Directional selectivity in the detection of moving visual stimuli critically depends on starburst amacrine cells, which have been studied primarily in rabbit retina; a large-scale reconstruction of the mouse retina at a single-synapse level, along with experimental and theoretical analysis, shows that mouse retinal circuitry is adapted to the smaller eye size of mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature18609

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免疫学:ガスダーミンファミリーの小孔形成能と構造による自己阻害

Pore-forming activity and structural autoinhibition of the gasdermin family p.111

The N-terminal domains of gasdermin proteins cause pyroptotic cell death by oligomerizing to form membrane pores.

doi: 10.1038/nature18590

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Letters

宇宙物理学:ペルセウス座銀河団のコア内の静穏な銀河団ガス

The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster p.117

X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of about 164 kilometres per second in the region 30–60 kiloparsecs from the central nucleus; turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, necessitating only a small correction to the total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium.

doi: 10.1038/nature18627

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化学物理学:量子状態を制御した極低温二原子ストロンチウム分子の光解離

Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control p.122

The photodissociation of 88Sr2 molecules is examined at ultracold temperatures with a high degree of control, and a wealth of quantum effects such as barrier tunnelling, matter—wave interference of reaction products and forbidden pathways are observed

doi: 10.1038/nature18314

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量子光学:プラズモニックナノ共振器における室温での単一分子強結合

Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities p.127

Placing a light emitter in an ultra-small optical cavity results in coupling between matter and light, generating new forms of emission that can be exploited in practical or fundamental applications; here, a system is described in which strong light–matter coupling occurs at room temperature and in ambient conditions by aligning single dye molecules in the optical cavities between gold nanoparticles and surfaces.

doi: 10.1038/nature17974

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材料化学:ゼオライト鋳型におけるマイクロ多孔質3Dグラフェン様炭素のランタン触媒を用いた合成

Lanthanum-catalysed synthesis of microporous 3D graphene-like carbons in a zeolite template p.131

A long-sought three-dimensional graphene-like carbon structure that resembles periodically networked carbon nanotubes is now readily available through lanthanum-catalysed carbon synthesis using a zeolite template.

doi: 10.1038/nature18284

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生体材料:60個のサブユニットからなる超安定正二十面体タンパク質の設計

Design of a hyperstable 60-subunit protein icosahedron p.136

The computational design of an extremely stable icosahedral self-assembling protein nanocage is presented; the icosahedron should be useful for applications ranging from calibrating fluorescence microscopy to drug delivery.

doi: 10.1038/nature18010

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テクトニクス:地球のテクトニックプレートの分布と分裂を制御する沈み込み

Subduction controls the distribution and fragmentation of Earth’s tectonic plates p.140

Computer models of mantle convection with plate-like behaviour are used to demonstrate that the size–frequency distribution of tectonic plates on Earth is controlled by subduction geometry—the spacing between subducting slabs controls the layout of large plates, and the stresses caused by the bending of trenches break plates into smaller fragments.

doi: 10.1038/nature17992

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森林生態学:熱帯林の人為的撹乱は森林伐採による生物多様性喪失を倍増させる可能性がある

Anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests can double biodiversity loss from deforestation p.144

Evaluation of the primary forests in the Brazilian state of Pará shows that anthropogenic disturbance can more than double the loss of biodiversity expected from deforestation.

doi: 10.1038/nature18326

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がん治療:SHP2ホスファターゼのアロステリック阻害は受容体型チロシンキナーゼによる発がんを抑制する

Allosteric inhibition of SHP2 phosphatase inhibits cancers driven by receptor tyrosine kinases p.148

SHP099, a selective inhibitor of signalling meditator SHP2 with drug-like properties, has an allosteric mechanism of action whereby it stabilizes SHP2 in an auto-inhibited conformation, and suppresses RAS–ERK signalling and proliferation in receptor-tyrosine-kinase-driven cancer cell lines and mouse tumour xenograft models.

doi: 10.1038/nature18621

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免疫学:インフラマソームにより活性化されたガスダーミンDは膜への小孔形成を介してピロトーシスを引き起こす

Inflammasome-activated gasdermin D causes pyroptosis by forming membrane pores p.153

Caspase-mediated cleavage of gasdermin D, previously shown to mediate pyroptosis, acts by inducing oligomerization and pore formation in cell membranes.

doi: 10.1038/nature18629

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ウイルス学:ゲノム規模のCRISPRスクリーニングによるフラビウイルス宿主因子の遺伝的分析

Genetic dissection of Flaviviridae host factors through genome-scale CRISPR screens p.159

A CRISPR screening approach shows that endoplasmic-reticulum (ER)-associated protein complexes, including the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) protein complex, are important for infection by dengue virus and other related mosquito-borne flaviviruses, whereas hepatitis C virus is dependent on distinct entry factors, RNA binding proteins and FAD biosynthesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature18631

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ウイルス学:CRISPRスクリーニングで明らかになった、フラビウイルスが必要とするシグナルペプチドプロセシング経路

A CRISPR screen defines a signal peptide processing pathway required by flaviviruses p.164

The endoplasmic-reticulum-associated signal peptidase complex is required for infection by numerous flaviviruses, including West Nile, Dengue and Zika viruses, but is not required for infection by other types of virus or for host protein synthesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature18625

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ウイルス学:トレミフェンはエボラウイルスの糖タンパク質と相互作用してこれを不安定化させる

Toremifene interacts with and destabilizes the Ebola virus glycoprotein p.169

High-resolution structures of the unliganded Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) and of GP bound to the drugs toremifene and ibuprofen are presented, providing insights into how the drugs inhibit viral fusion with the endosomal membrane.

doi: 10.1038/nature18615

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ウイルス学:宿主のヌクレオソームと結合して免疫の危険シグナルを隔離するウイルスコアタンパク質

A core viral protein binds host nucleosomes to sequester immune danger signals p.173

Here, a small core protein of human adenoviruses is shown to associate with histones, sequestering proteins on host chromatin and preventing inflammatory proteins from being released and triggering inflammation.

doi: 10.1038/nature18317

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分子生物学:複製–転写の衝突によって誘発される変異の性質

The nature of mutations induced by replication–transcription collisions p.178

When transcription and replication machineries collide on DNA, they can cause mutations to occur in the area near the collision; these mutations are now shown to include two types—duplications/deletions within the transcription unit and base substitutions in the cis-regulatory element of gene expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature18316

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生化学:GPCR中のアゴニスト結合ポケットへのGタンパク質のアロステリックな連結

Allosteric coupling from G protein to the agonist-binding pocket in GPCRs p.182

Here, pharmacological and biochemical evidence is provided that shows that G-protein coupling to the β2-adrenergic receptor stabilizes a ‘closed’ conformation of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and that that the effects of the G protein on the ligand-binding site of the GPCR are observed even in the absence of a bound agonist.

doi: 10.1038/nature18324

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