Volume 535 Number 7610



FDA should stand firm on stem-cell treatments p.7

US regulators must regain the upper hand in the approval system.

doi: 10.1038/535007b


The past, present and future of the PhD thesis p.7

Writing a PhD thesis is a personal and professional milestone for many researchers. But the process needs to change with the times.

doi: 10.1038/535007a


Use Zika to renew focus on birth-defect research p.8

The high-profile of the virus can kick-start work on long-standing problems.

doi: 10.1038/535008a


米国の科学技術担当大統領補佐官John Holdrenが振り返る、ホワイトハウスでの8年間。

Obama’s top scientist talks shrinking budgets, Donald Trump, and his biggest regret p.15

John Holdren tells Nature about the highs and lows of nearly eight years in the White House.

doi: 10.1038/535015a


Zika raises profile of more common birth-defect virus p.17

Cytomegalovirus is a much greater global problem than Zika.

doi: 10.1038/535017a


Dry Amazon could see record fire season p.18

Forecasters warn that high ocean temperatures presage intense blazes in rainforest.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20190


Science academies blast US government’s planned research-ethics reforms p.18

Panel recommends scrapping proposed changes to 'Common Rule' on human-subjects research.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20191


CubeSats set for deep space — if they can hitch a ride p.19

Shoebox-sized craft face a wait to be propelled beyond Earth’s orbit.

doi: 10.1038/535019a

News Features


Back to the thesis p.22


doi: 10.1038/535022a


What’s the point of the PhD thesis? p.26


doi: 10.1038/535026a

News & Views


Astrophysics: Rare data from a lost satellite p.40


doi: 10.1038/535040a


Neuroscience: In search of the memory molecule p.41


doi: 10.1038/nature18903


Chemical physics: Quantum control of light-induced reactions p.42


doi: 10.1038/535042a


Conservation: The rainforest's 'do not disturb' signs p.44


doi: 10.1038/nature18901


Computational neuroscience: Species-specific motion detectors p.45


doi: 10.1038/nature18454



Species-specific wiring for direction selectivity in the mammalian retina p.105

Directional selectivity in the detection of moving visual stimuli critically depends on starburst amacrine cells, which have been studied primarily in rabbit retina; a large-scale reconstruction of the mouse retina at a single-synapse level, along with experimental and theoretical analysis, shows that mouse retinal circuitry is adapted to the smaller eye size of mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature18609


Pore-forming activity and structural autoinhibition of the gasdermin family p.111

The N-terminal domains of gasdermin proteins cause pyroptotic cell death by oligomerizing to form membrane pores.

doi: 10.1038/nature18590



The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster p.117

X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of about 164 kilometres per second in the region 30–60 kiloparsecs from the central nucleus; turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, necessitating only a small correction to the total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium.

doi: 10.1038/nature18627


Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control p.122

The photodissociation of 88Sr2 molecules is examined at ultracold temperatures with a high degree of control, and a wealth of quantum effects such as barrier tunnelling, matter—wave interference of reaction products and forbidden pathways are observed

doi: 10.1038/nature18314


Single-molecule strong coupling at room temperature in plasmonic nanocavities p.127

Placing a light emitter in an ultra-small optical cavity results in coupling between matter and light, generating new forms of emission that can be exploited in practical or fundamental applications; here, a system is described in which strong light–matter coupling occurs at room temperature and in ambient conditions by aligning single dye molecules in the optical cavities between gold nanoparticles and surfaces.

doi: 10.1038/nature17974


Lanthanum-catalysed synthesis of microporous 3D graphene-like carbons in a zeolite template p.131

A long-sought three-dimensional graphene-like carbon structure that resembles periodically networked carbon nanotubes is now readily available through lanthanum-catalysed carbon synthesis using a zeolite template.

doi: 10.1038/nature18284


Design of a hyperstable 60-subunit protein icosahedron p.136

The computational design of an extremely stable icosahedral self-assembling protein nanocage is presented; the icosahedron should be useful for applications ranging from calibrating fluorescence microscopy to drug delivery.

doi: 10.1038/nature18010


Subduction controls the distribution and fragmentation of Earth’s tectonic plates p.140

Computer models of mantle convection with plate-like behaviour are used to demonstrate that the size–frequency distribution of tectonic plates on Earth is controlled by subduction geometry—the spacing between subducting slabs controls the layout of large plates, and the stresses caused by the bending of trenches break plates into smaller fragments.

doi: 10.1038/nature17992


Anthropogenic disturbance in tropical forests can double biodiversity loss from deforestation p.144

Evaluation of the primary forests in the Brazilian state of Pará shows that anthropogenic disturbance can more than double the loss of biodiversity expected from deforestation.

doi: 10.1038/nature18326


Allosteric inhibition of SHP2 phosphatase inhibits cancers driven by receptor tyrosine kinases p.148

SHP099, a selective inhibitor of signalling meditator SHP2 with drug-like properties, has an allosteric mechanism of action whereby it stabilizes SHP2 in an auto-inhibited conformation, and suppresses RAS–ERK signalling and proliferation in receptor-tyrosine-kinase-driven cancer cell lines and mouse tumour xenograft models.

doi: 10.1038/nature18621


Inflammasome-activated gasdermin D causes pyroptosis by forming membrane pores p.153

Caspase-mediated cleavage of gasdermin D, previously shown to mediate pyroptosis, acts by inducing oligomerization and pore formation in cell membranes.

doi: 10.1038/nature18629


Genetic dissection of Flaviviridae host factors through genome-scale CRISPR screens p.159

A CRISPR screening approach shows that endoplasmic-reticulum (ER)-associated protein complexes, including the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) protein complex, are important for infection by dengue virus and other related mosquito-borne flaviviruses, whereas hepatitis C virus is dependent on distinct entry factors, RNA binding proteins and FAD biosynthesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature18631


A CRISPR screen defines a signal peptide processing pathway required by flaviviruses p.164

The endoplasmic-reticulum-associated signal peptidase complex is required for infection by numerous flaviviruses, including West Nile, Dengue and Zika viruses, but is not required for infection by other types of virus or for host protein synthesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature18625


Toremifene interacts with and destabilizes the Ebola virus glycoprotein p.169

High-resolution structures of the unliganded Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) and of GP bound to the drugs toremifene and ibuprofen are presented, providing insights into how the drugs inhibit viral fusion with the endosomal membrane.

doi: 10.1038/nature18615


A core viral protein binds host nucleosomes to sequester immune danger signals p.173

Here, a small core protein of human adenoviruses is shown to associate with histones, sequestering proteins on host chromatin and preventing inflammatory proteins from being released and triggering inflammation.

doi: 10.1038/nature18317


The nature of mutations induced by replication–transcription collisions p.178

When transcription and replication machineries collide on DNA, they can cause mutations to occur in the area near the collision; these mutations are now shown to include two types—duplications/deletions within the transcription unit and base substitutions in the cis-regulatory element of gene expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature18316


Allosteric coupling from G protein to the agonist-binding pocket in GPCRs p.182

Here, pharmacological and biochemical evidence is provided that shows that G-protein coupling to the β2-adrenergic receptor stabilizes a ‘closed’ conformation of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and that that the effects of the G protein on the ligand-binding site of the GPCR are observed even in the absence of a bound agonist.

doi: 10.1038/nature18324

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