Volume 534 Number 7608



Data sharing p.435

Pooling clinical details helps doctors to diagnose rare diseases — but more sharing is needed.

doi: 10.1038/534435b


Way of the dragon p.435

To boost its research quality and innovation, China must strengthen its scientific foundations and let researchers — not policymakers — set the agenda for innovation and discovery.

doi: 10.1038/534435a


At gunpoint p.436

The problem of gun violence in the United States must finally be addressed.

doi: 10.1038/534436a



Election campaigns edge Australia towards climate consensus p.443

Rival parties avoid carbon controversy of former years.

doi: 10.1038/534443a


Giant SKA telescope rattles South African community p.444

Struggle in Northern Cape province highlights a balancing act that scientists leading gigantic projects face.

doi: 10.1038/534444a


Canadian earthquake detector has deep-sea edge over US rival p.446

Sea-floor instruments will monitor seismic activity very close to the Cascadia fault.

doi: 10.1038/534446a


Infections reveal inequality between the sexes p.447

Stark differences between men and women’s immune responses pose medical conundrum.

doi: 10.1038/534447a


Iconic Antarctic geology lab gets the boot p.448

Florida repository of marine sediments dates back to early days of US polar exploration.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20096


LIGO detects whispers of another black-hole merger p.448

After historic first discovery last September, twin observatories detected gravitational waves again on Boxing Day.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20093

News Features


Science in China p.451


doi: 10.1038/534451a


China by the numbers p.452


doi: 10.1038/534452a


Science stars of China p.456


doi: 10.1038/534456a


China’s bid to be a DNA superpower p.462

塩基配列解読で世界を席巻した中国は、今度は精密医療(precision medicine)の分野で世界の頂点の座を狙っている。

doi: 10.1038/534462a

News & Views


Astrophysics: Recipe for a black-hole merger p.478


doi: 10.1038/534478a


Cell biology: Membrane kiss mediates hormone secretion p.479

細胞間のコミュニケーションは分泌顆粒からのホルモン放出によっているが、こうした小胞が細胞膜と融合する仕組みは分かっていなかった。今回、in vivoでこの過程が可視化され、安定な中間的融合段階の存在を示す証拠が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature18446


Particle physics: Quantum simulation of fundamental physics p.480


doi: 10.1038/534480a


Evolution: Gene regulation in transition p.482

動物と近縁のフィラステレア綱に属する単細胞生物Capsaspora owczarzakiについての詳しい解析は、多細胞生物への移行の間に生じた遺伝子調節の変化についての手掛かりを与えてくれる。

doi: 10.1038/nature18447


Biogeochemistry: Synergy of a warm spring and dry summer p.483


doi: 10.1038/nature18450


Structural biology: When sperm meets egg p.484


doi: 10.1038/nature18448



Searching for the rules that govern hadron construction p.487

Advances in meson spectroscopy can enhance our understanding of how composite objects emerge from the fundamental underlying theory of interacting quarks and gluons, quantum chromodynamics.

doi: 10.1038/nature18011



Selective spider toxins reveal a role for the Nav1.1 channel in mechanical pain p.494

Two spider toxins are shown to target the Nav1.1 subtype of sodium channel specifically, shedding light on the role of these channels in mechanical pain signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature17976


Defining the consequences of genetic variation on a proteome-wide scale p.500

The effect of natural genetic diversity on the proteome is characterized using an outbred mouse model with extensive variation; both transcripts and proteins from mouse livers are quantified to identify a large set of protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL), and mediation analysis identifies causal protein intermediates of distant pQTL.

doi: 10.1038/nature18270


Crystal structure of the epithelial calcium channel TRPV6 p.506

The X-ray crystal structure of rat transient receptor potential channel TRPV6 at 3.25 Å resolution is reported, providing new insights into its assembly and calcium-selective permeation.

doi: 10.1038/nature17975



The first gravitational-wave source from the isolated evolution of two stars in the 40–100 solar mass range p.512

Numerical simulations of the formation of binary black holes provide a framework within which to interpret the recent detection of the first gravitational-wave source and to predict the properties of subsequent binary-black-hole gravitational-wave events; the calculations predict detections of about 1,000 black-hole mergers per year once gravitational-wave observatories reach full sensitivity.

doi: 10.1038/nature18322


Real-time dynamics of lattice gauge theories with a few-qubit quantum computer p.516

A digital quantum simulation of a lattice gauge theory is performed on a quantum computer that consists of a few trapped-ion qubits; the model simulated is the Schwinger mechanism, which describes the creation of electron–positron pairs from vacuum.

doi: 10.1038/nature18318


Solid-state harmonics beyond the atomic limit p.520

A direct comparison of high harmonic generation in the solid and gas phases of Ar and Kr reveals higher harmonics in these rare-gas solids caused by strong interband couplings; evidence of recollisions implies that gas-phase techniques for attosecond pulse generation and orbital tomography could be adapted for solids.

doi: 10.1038/nature17660


Negative capacitance in multidomain ferroelectric superlattices p.524

Negative capacitance is observed in a model system of multidomain ferroelectric–dielectric superlattices; the multidomain state can increase the temperature range over which negative capacitance can be observed.

doi: 10.1038/nature17659


Controlled fragmentation of multimaterial fibres and films via polymer cold-drawing p.529

Cold-drawing of multimaterial fibres consisting of a brittle core embedded in a ductile polymer cladding results in controllable fragmentation of the core to produce uniformly sized rods parallel to the drawing direction for cylindrical geometries and narrow, parallel strips perpendicular to the drawing direction for flat geometries.

doi: 10.1038/nature17980


Abiological catalysis by artificial haem proteins containing noble metals in place of iron p.534

Replacing the iron atom in Fe-porphyrin IX proteins with a noble-metal atom enables the creation of enzymes that catalyse reactions not catalysed by native Fe-enzymes or other metalloenzymes; this approach could be used to generate other artificial enzymes that could catalyse a wide range of abiological transformations.

doi: 10.1038/nature17968


A complement–microglial axis drives synapse loss during virus-induced memory impairment p.538

People infected with West Nile virus often experience cognitive side effects including memory loss through unknown mechanisms; mice and humans infected with the virus experience a loss in hippocampal presynaptic terminals, which can be reversed by disrupting complement or microglia in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature18283


The bacteriophage φ29 tail possesses a pore-forming loop for cell membrane penetration p.544

Structural and functional studies of the tail knob protein of bacteriophage ϕ29 shed light on how the phage breaches the membrane barrier and ejects its DNA genome into the host cell.

doi: 10.1038/nature18017


Hemi-fused structure mediates and controls fusion and fission in live cells p.548

Super-resolution imaging provides direct evidence in live cells that membrane fusion and fission are mediated through an intermediate hemi-fused structure, where fusion and calcium/dynamin-dependent fission mechanisms compete to determine the transition of the intermediate to fusion or fission.

doi: 10.1038/nature18598


AMPK–SKP2–CARM1 signalling cascade in transcriptional regulation of autophagy p.553

An investigation into the nuclear events involved in autophagy regulation identifies the histone arginine methyltransferase CARM1 as a transcriptional co-activator of transcription factor TFEB; CARM1 levels are decreased by the SKP2-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase and increased during autophagy induction after nutrient starvation.

doi: 10.1038/nature18014


Rocaglates convert DEAD-box protein eIF4A into a sequence-selective translational repressor p.558

The cancer drug rocaglamide A cements the RNA helicase eIF4A on polypurine sequences and thereby prevents scanning of the 43S subunit along the messenger RNA, highlighting how a drug can act by stabilizing sequence-selective RNA–protein interactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature17978


Molecular architecture of the human sperm IZUMO1 and egg JUNO fertilization complex p.562

This study describes the structures of the IZUMO1 protein, found on sperm, and the JUNO protein, found on eggs, and sheds light on their roles in sperm–egg fusion during fertilization.

doi: 10.1038/nature18595


Structure of IZUMO1–JUNO reveals sperm–oocyte recognition during mammalian fertilization p.566

The structure of the IZUMO1–JUNO complex, crucial for sperm–oocyte interaction during fertilization, is reported, providing a first step towards understanding the mechanics of the interaction.

doi: 10.1038/nature18596


Proteome-wide covalent ligand discovery in native biological systems p.570

Small molecules are powerful tools for investigating protein function, and can serve as leads for new therapeutics, but most human proteins lack known small-molecule ligands; here, a quantitative analysis of cysteine-reactive small-molecule fragments screened against thousands of proteins is reported.

doi: 10.1038/nature18002


S tructural basis of N6 - adenosine methylation by the METTL3–METTL14 complex p.575

The structure of the METTL3–METTL14 complex, which mediates N6-adenosine methylation of RNA, suggests that the METTL3 subunit is the catalytic core while METTL14 serves to bind RNA.

doi: 10.1038/nature18298

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