目次

Editorials

核安全保障の強化のために、研究炉での高濃縮ウラン使用は止めるべきだ。

Safety in neutrons p.5

To boost nuclear security, research reactors must eliminate highly enriched uranium.

doi: 10.1038/532005b

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アンゴラでの黄熱病再流行が示すように、エボラ出血熱の大流行が終息したからといって、その対策・警戒を短期間で緩めてはならない。

Viral complacency p.5

The first outbreak of yellow fever in Angola in almost 30 years illustrates the danger of a short attention span when confronting epidemic threats.

doi: 10.1038/532005a

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精神疾患は世界的な重要課題であり、特定の目標を定めて取り組んでいく必要がある。

Mind matters p.6

Mental illness is moving up the global agenda — but there is still much to do.

doi: 10.1038/532006a

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News

米国大統領選でのドナルド・トランプ候補の言動に、科学界からも懸念の声が。

Trump’s immigration stance stokes fears for science p.13

Rhetoric in US presidential campaign concerns researchers — particularly Muslims.

doi: 10.1038/532013a

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暗黒物質を検出したとするDAMAチームの主張を、複数のチームが同タイプの検出器を使って最終的な検証へ。

Controversial dark-matter claim faces ultimate test p.14

Multiple teams finally have the material they need to repeat enigmatic experiment.

doi: 10.1038/532014a

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ジカ熱と小頭症との関連性を調べるための研究で、胎児組織を使うことの重要性が浮き彫りに。

Zika highlights role of controversial fetal-tissue research p.16

Fetal tissue may prove crucial to probing link between virus and birth defects.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19655

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気候変動による水資源の変化を調べる目的で、NASAが飛行機を使った雪の追跡調査を。

Snow-sensing fleet to unlock water's icy secrets p.17

Airborne experiments aim to fill in the blanks of global water resources as the climate changes.

doi: 10.1038/532017a

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公海の生物多様性を守り、持続可能性を確保するための国際条約の締結に向けた交渉が。

Negotiations to tame marine Wild West begin p.18

Nations debate how to protect biodiversity in the high seas.

doi: 10.1038/532018a

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ヨーロッパのヒューマン・ブレイン・プロジェクトが、幅広い研究利用を期待して、試作段階の計算ツールを公開へ。

Flagship brain project releases neuro-computing tools p.18

Human Brain Project asks wider neuroscience community to start using its hardware and software.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19672

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News Features

メンタルヘルス:ポケットの中の精神科

Mental health: There’s an app for that p.20

自己診断ができたり助言が得られたりするメンタルヘルス関連のモバイルアプリがちまたにあふれているが、有効性がしっかり検証されているものはほとんどない。

doi: 10.1038/532020a

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News & Views

恒星物理学:ご近所にあった超新星

Stellar astrophysics: Supernovae in the neighbourhood p.40

深海堆積物中の放射性同位体の詳細な測定が行われ、さらにこのような同位体がどのようにして地球に到達したのかについてモデル化された。これらから、地球のすぐ近くで多数の超新星が生じ、それらがおそらく地球の進化に影響を与えた可能性があることが示された。

doi: 10.1038/532040a

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微生物学:真菌の毒素産生は予想外の発見

Microbiology: Fungus produces a toxic surprise p.41

真菌の一種のCandida albicansの菌糸から放出されるタンパク質断片が宿主細胞を破壊することが分かった。これはカビ以外のヒト真菌病原体が毒性ペプチドを産生することを実証した最初の研究である。

doi: 10.1038/nature17319

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島の生物地理学:海水準の変動によって形作られた生物多様性

Island biogeography: Shaped by sea-level shifts p.42

2万1000年前の最終氷期極大期以降に起こった島の地形変化と気候変動の解析から、海水準変化が海洋島の現在の生物多様性に影響を与えてきたことが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature17880

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気候科学:水の過去の歴史を再訪してその将来を予想する

Climate science: Water's past revisited to predict its future p.44

北半球での水の1200年にわたる歴史が代理指標データに基づいて再構築され、人為起源の気候変化が20世紀の降水量に影響を及ぼしたかどうかについての議論が盛んになっている。

doi: 10.1038/532044a

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神経科学:自閉症という難問を解く

Neuroscience: Untangling autism p.45

Ptchd1という遺伝子がマウス脳で果たす役割が巧妙な実験により解明され、神経発達障害の原因と症状の間の複雑な関係を解きほぐすための手段の1つが示された。

doi: 10.1038/nature17311

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分子生物学:脳に生じた破損箇所

Molecular biology: Breaks in the brain p.46

神経細胞中にクラスター状にまとまったDNA二本鎖切断箇所が複数存在することが、ハイスループットな手法を使って見つかった。クラスターの大部分は、神経機能に関連している大型の遺伝子中にあり、このことは切断箇所が組織特異的な役割を担っている可能性を示している。

doi: 10.1038/nature17316

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Perspective

生物地球化学:気候変動対応型の土壌

Climate-smart soils p.49

The potential of soils to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions has not been exploited; here we discuss and recommend research and technology developments to implement mitigation practices.

doi: 10.1038/nature17174

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Articles

神経科学:Ptchd1Y/−マウスの注意欠陥は視床網様体核の障害による

Thalamic reticular impairment underlies attention deficit in Ptchd1Y/− mice p.58

PTCHD1 deletion in humans leads to attention deficits, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorders; mouse PTCHD1 is enriched in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and TRN-restricted Ptchd1 deletion in mice led to attention-deficit hyperactivity, which could be rescued by modulating calcium-dependent potassium channel activity, suggesting that a TRN deficit may underlie core impairments associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and it may be possible to identify therapeutic targets for individuals with attention disorders.

doi: 10.1038/nature17427

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微生物学:Candidalysinは粘膜感染に重要な真菌ペプチド毒素である

Candidalysin is a fungal peptide toxin critical for mucosal infection p.64

This study identifies a cytolytic peptide toxin in the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans—the peptide is both a crucial virulence factor that permeabilizes the host cell plasma membrane and a key signal that triggers a host danger response pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature17625

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Letters

素粒子宇宙物理学:星間放射性核種60Feの全球的な堆積から示された地球近傍の最近の超新星

Recent near-Earth supernovae probed by global deposition of interstellar radioactive 60Fe p.69

The rate of supernovae in our local Galactic neighbourhood within a distance of about 100 parsecs from Earth is estimated to be one every 2–4 million years, based on the total rate in the Milky Way (2.0 ± 0.7 per century). Recent massive-star and supernova activity in Earth’s vicinity may be traced by radionuclides with half-lives of up to 100 million years, if trapped in interstellar dust grains that penetrate the Solar System. One such radionuclide is 60Fe (with a half-life of 2.6 million years), which is ejected in supernova explosions and winds from massive stars. Here we report that the 60Fe signal observed previously in deep-sea crusts is global, extended in time and of interstellar origin from multiple events. We analysed deep-sea archives from all major oceans for 60Fe deposition via the accretion of interstellar dust particles. Our results reveal 60Fe interstellar influxes onto Earth at 1.5–3.2 million years ago and at 6.5–8.7 million years ago. The signal measured implies that a few per cent of fresh 60Fe was captured in dust and deposited on Earth. Our findings indicate multiple supernova and massive-star events during the last ten million years at distances of up to 100 parsecs.

doi: 10.1038/nature17196

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素粒子宇宙物理学:60Fe輸送のモデリングから得られた太陽近傍の最近の超新星の位置

The locations of recent supernovae near the Sun from modelling 60Fe transport p.73

The signature of 60Fe in deep-sea crusts indicates that one or more supernovae exploded in the solar neighbourhood about 2.2 million years ago. Recent isotopic analysis is consistent with a core-collapse or electron-capture supernova that occurred 60 to 130 parsecs from the Sun. Moreover, peculiarities in the cosmic ray spectrum point to a nearby supernova about two million years ago. The Local Bubble of hot, diffuse plasma, in which the Solar System is embedded, originated from 14 to 20 supernovae within a moving group, whose surviving members are now in the Scorpius–Centaurus stellar association. Here we report calculations of the most probable trajectories and masses of the supernova progenitors, and hence their explosion times and sites. The 60Fe signal arises from two supernovae at distances between 90 and 100 parsecs. The closest occurred 2.3 million years ago at present-day galactic coordinates l = 327°, b = 11°, and the second-closest exploded about 1.5 million years ago at l = 343°, b = 25°, with masses of 9.2 and 8.8 times the solar mass, respectively. The remaining supernovae, which formed the Local Bubble, contribute to a smaller extent because they happened at larger distances and longer ago (60Fe has a half-life of 2.6 million years). There are uncertainties relating to the nucleosynthesis yields and the loss of 60Fe during transport, but they do not influence the relative distribution of 60Fe in the crust layers, and therefore our model reproduces the measured relative abundances very well.

doi: 10.1038/nature17424

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量子情報:ダイヤモンド中の単一キュービットのコヒーレントフィードバック制御

Coherent feedback control of a single qubit in diamond p.77

A feedback-control algorithm implemented using a solid-state spin qubit system associated with the nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond is demonstrated; the algorithm uses coherent feedback to overcome the limitations of measurement-based feedback and protects the qubit against intrinsic dephasing noise, making it stable for milliseconds.

doi: 10.1038/nature17404

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物性物理学:超伝導硫化水素系における量子水素結合の対称化

Quantum hydrogen-bond symmetrization in the superconducting hydrogen sulfide system p.81

Ab initio calculations are used to determine the contribution of quantum fluctuations to the crystal structure of the high-pressure superconducting phase of H3S and D3S; the quantum nature of the proton is found to fundamentally change the superconducting phase diagram of H3S.

doi: 10.1038/nature17175

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生物材料:ヒョウタンウツボカズラの口縁部表面における連続的な方向性水輸送

Continuous directional water transport on the peristome surface of Nepenthes alata p.85

Insects are captured by the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata when they ‘aquaplane’ on the wet rim, or ‘peristome’, of the plant’s pitcher organ; here it is shown that unidirectional water flow is crucial to the complete wetting of the peristome, and that the underlying mechanism involves multiscale structural features.

doi: 10.1038/nature17189

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化学:(+)-ホルボールの19ステップ全合成

Nineteen-step total synthesis of (+)-phorbol p.90

Enantiospecific total synthesis of (+)-phorbol in only 19 steps from the abundant monoterpene (+)-3-carene is demonstrated using a two-phase terpene synthesis strategy.

doi: 10.1038/nature17153

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気候:過去12世紀にわたる北半球の水文気候変動

Northern Hemisphere hydroclimate variability over the past twelve centuries p.94

A very large set of proxy data is used to reconstruct Northern Hemisphere hydroclimate variability over the past twelve centuries, to benchmark climate model simulations of hydroclimate; the twentieth-century intensification of hydroclimate extremes seen in the model simulations is not supported by the proxy reconstruction.

doi: 10.1038/nature17418

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生物地理学:後期第四紀の気候変動が島の生物多様性を形作る

Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity p.99

Changes in island area, isolation and connectivity observed since the Last Glacial Maximum have had measurable effects on present-day biodiversity, with formerly larger and less well connected islands having a greater number of endemic species.

doi: 10.1038/nature17443

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神経科学:捕食者のにおいに対するストレスホルモン応答に関わる特異的な嗅覚野領域

A specific area of olfactory cortex involved in stress hormone responses to predator odours p.103

Exposure to predator scents triggers an instinctive fear response in mice, including a surge in blood levels of stress hormones; here, the amygdalo-piriform transition area is identified as provoking these hormonal responses.

doi: 10.1038/nature17156

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幹細胞:半数体ヒト胚性幹細胞の誘導と分化

Derivation and differentiation of haploid human embryonic stem cells p.107

Haploid human embryonic stem cells have been derived from haploid oocytes, the cells maintain a normal haploid karyotype as pluripotent cells and, unexpectedly, as differentiated cells — loss-of-function genetic screens previously performed with haploid embryonic stem cells in mice can now be performed in humans.

doi: 10.1038/nature17408

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細胞生物学:ミトコンドリアのROSは熱産生によるエネルギー消費とUCP1のスルフェニル化を調節する

Mitochondrial ROS regulate thermogenic energy expenditure and sulfenylation of UCP1 p.112

Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue is supported by a burst of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species upon cold exposure.

doi: 10.1038/nature17399

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免疫学:Lypd8は有鞭毛微生物相と大腸上皮の隔離を促進する

Lypd8 promotes the segregation of flagellated microbiota and colonic epithelia p.117

Lypd8 protein derived from intestinal epithelial cells binds to flagellated bacteria to reduce their motility, which limits the entry of Gram-negative bacteria into the inner colonic mucus and prevents invasion of colonic epithelia.

doi: 10.1038/nature17406

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心血管疾患:脳海綿状血管腫は内皮におけるMEKK3–KLF2/4シグナル伝達の増加により生じる

Cerebral cavernous malformations arise from endothelial gain of MEKK3–KLF2/4 signalling p.122

Gain of MEKK3 signalling is shown to cause cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) via activation of the target genes Klf2 and Klf4; endothelial-specific loss of MEKK3, KLF2 or KLF4 prevents lesion formation and lethality in a mouse CCM model.

doi: 10.1038/nature17178

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構造生物学:レナリドミドにより誘発され、CRL4CRBNユビキチンリガーゼによって起こるCK1α分解の構造基盤

Structural basis of lenalidomide-induced CK1α degradation by the CRL4CRBN ubiquitin ligase p.127

Thalidomide and its derivatives, lenalidomide and pomalidomide, are immune modulatory drugs (IMiDs) used in the treatment of haematologic malignancies. IMiDs bind CRBN, the substrate receptor of the CUL4–RBX1–DDB1–CRBN (also known as CRL4CRBN) E3 ubiquitin ligase, and inhibit ubiquitination of endogenous CRL4CRBN substrates. Unexpectedly, IMiDs also repurpose the ligase to target new proteins for degradation. Lenalidomide induces degradation of the lymphoid transcription factors Ikaros and Aiolos (also known as IKZF1 and IKZF3), and casein kinase 1α (CK1α), which contributes to its clinical efficacy in the treatment of multiple myeloma and 5q-deletion associated myelodysplastic syndrome (del(5q) MDS), respectively. How lenalidomide alters the specificity of the ligase to degrade these proteins remains elusive. Here we present the 2.45 Å crystal structure of DDB1–CRBN bound to lenalidomide and CK1α. CRBN and lenalidomide jointly provide the binding interface for a CK1α β-hairpin-loop located in the kinase N-lobe. We show that CK1α binding to CRL4CRBN is strictly dependent on the presence of an IMiD. Binding of IKZF1 to CRBN similarly requires the compound and both, IKZF1 and CK1α, use a related binding mode. Our study provides a mechanistic explanation for the selective efficacy of lenalidomide in del(5q) MDS therapy. We anticipate that high-affinity protein–protein interactions induced by small molecules will provide opportunities for drug development, particularly for targeted protein degradation.

doi: 10.1038/nature16979

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構造生物学:セパラーゼによるコヒーシン切断の構造基盤

Structural basis of cohesin cleavage by separase p.131

The crystal structures of the protease domain of separase are reported, showing how separase recognizes cohesin, and how phosphorylation of the cleavage site enhances separase activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature17402

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