Africa’s elite p.275

A new forum promises to bring deserved prestige to outstanding African researchers, and demonstrates the continent’s untapped potential.

doi: 10.1038/531275a

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Metropolis now p.275

Growing urbanization is heralding a new era of science in the city.

doi: 10.1038/531275b

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Practical DNA p.276

The promise of DNA origami shows signs of coming to fruition a decade after its debut.

doi: 10.1038/531276a

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‘Brain doping’ may improve athletes’ performance p.283

Electrical stimulation seems to boost endurance in preliminary studies.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19534

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What Google’s winning Go algorithm will do next p.284

AlphaGo’s techniques could have broad uses, but moving beyond games is a challenge.

doi: 10.1038/531284a

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Oldest ancient-human DNA details dawn of Neanderthals p.286

Sequence of 430,000-year-old DNA pushes back divergence of humans and Neanderthals.

doi: 10.1038/531286a

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Fermat's last theorem earns Andrew Wiles the Abel Prize p.287

Mathematician receives coveted award for solving three-century-old problem in number theory.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19552

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Mars launch to test collaboration between Europe and Russia p.288

Joint ExoMars mission launches lander and orbiter — a rover is planned for 2018.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19547

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NASA Mars woes could delay other planetary missions p.289

Plan to postpone launch of InSight probe will cost agency an extra US$150 million.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19549

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News Features


On the hunt for a mystery planet p.290


doi: 10.1038/531290a

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The red-hot debate about transmissible Alzheimer's p.294


doi: 10.1038/531294a

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News & Views


Materials science: How crystals get an edge p.308


doi: 10.1038/531308a

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Biomedicine: Visionary stem-cell therapies p.309


doi: 10.1038/nature17305

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Global warming: China’s contribution to climate change p.310


doi: 10.1038/531310a

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Microrobotics: Swimmers by design p.312


doi: 10.1038/531312a

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Virology: The X-Files of hepatitis B p.313


doi: 10.1038/531313a

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Coral reefs: Turning back time p.314

天然のサンゴ礁の周辺の海水の酸性度を下げてやると、サンゴ礁の石灰化が大幅に促進されることがin situ実験によって明らかになった。このことは、海洋酸性化がすでにサンゴ礁の成長を遅くしている可能性を示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/nature17302

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Interface dynamics and crystal phase switching in GaAs nanowires p.317

Crystal phase switching between zinc-blende and wurtzite phases during the growth of gallium arsenide nanowires is observed experimentally, and explained via changes in the geometry of the catalytic droplet sitting on top of the growing nanowire.

doi: 10.1038/nature17148

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Lens regeneration using endogenous stem cells with gain of visual function p.323

A new procedure for cataract removal that preserves lens epithelial progenitor cells in mammals, which require Pax6 and Bmi1 for their self-renewal, achieves lens regeneration in rabbits, macaques and in infants with cataracts.

doi: 10.1038/nature17181

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構造生物学:セルロースの生合成と膜透過をin crystalloで観察

Observing cellulose biosynthesis and membrane translocation in crystallo p.329

Here the authors use in crystallo enzymology to obtain structural snapshots of a complete cellulose biosynthesis cycle and reveal the mechanism by which the bacterial cellulose synthase BcsA–BcsB translocates the nascent cellulose polymer.

doi: 10.1038/nature16966

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Crystal structures of the M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors p.335

X-ray crystal structures of the M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, revealing differences in the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites that help to explain the subtype selectivity of drugs targeting this family of receptors.

doi: 10.1038/nature17188

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Positron annihilation signatures associated with the outburst of the microquasar V404 Cygni p.341

Observations of γ-ray emission from the microquasar V404 Cygni during a recent period of strong flaring activity show spectral features at around 511 kiloelectronvolts, which are clear signatures of variable positron annihilation, implying a high rate of positron production.

doi: 10.1038/nature16978

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Late Tharsis formation and implications for early Mars p.344

By calculating the rotational figure of Mars and its surface topography before the Tharsis volcanic region caused true polar wander, it is shown that Tharsis formed during the Noachian and Hesperian periods at about the same time as the valley networks; early Mars climate simulations suggest icy precipitation in a latitudinal band in the southern hemisphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature17171

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Enhancing coherence in molecular spin qubits via atomic clock transitions p.348

Magnetic molecules are candidates for solid-state spin qubits from which a quantum computer might be constructed, but the magnetic interactions between such molecules typically lead to unwanted decoherence; now magnetic molecules have been designed in such a way that their spin dynamics are energetically protected against the decoherence-inducing interactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature16984

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Three-dimensional control of the helical axis of a chiral nematic liquid crystal by light p.352

Chiral nematic liquid crystals are self-organized helical superstructures in which the helices can stand or lie, and lie in either a uniform or a random way; here, the helices are reversibly driven from a standing arrangement to a uniform lying arrangement and then rotated in-plane—solely by light.

doi: 10.1038/nature17141

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The contribution of China’s emissions to global climate forcing p.357

Using a global coupled biogeochemistry–climate model and a chemistry and transport model reveals that China’s present-day global radiative forcing is about ten per cent of the current global total, made up of both warming and cooling contributions; if in the future China reduces the cooling forcings, global warming could accelerate.

doi: 10.1038/nature17165

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Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification p.362

A manipulative experiment in which a reef is alkalinized in situ shows that calcification rates are likely to be lower already than they were in pre-industrial times because of acidification.

doi: 10.1038/nature17155

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Vast assembly of vocal marine mammals from diverse species on fish spawning ground p.366

Vocalizations were recorded for over eight distinct whale species as they converged on a shoal of herring to feed; the predators divided the shoal into overlapping but species-specific foraging sectors and the activities of the whales changed between day and night.

doi: 10.1038/nature16960

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Sensory experience regulates cortical inhibition by inducing IGF1 in VIP neurons p.371

Igf1 is identified in mice as an experience-induced gene that functions cell-autonomously to increase inhibitory input onto a disinhibitory subtype of GABAergic neurons in the cortex, affecting the downstream excitation–inhibition balance within circuits that regulate visual acuity, and providing a novel example of experience modulating neural plasticity.

doi: 10.1038/nature17187

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Co-ordinated ocular development from human iPS cells and recovery of corneal function p.376

A protocol has been developed to use human induced pluripotent stem cells to obtain a self-formed ectodermal autonomous multizone, which includes distinct cell lineages of the eye, including the ocular surface ectoderm, lens, neuro-retina, and retinal pigment epithelium that can be expanded to form a functional corneal epithelium when transplanted to an animal model of corneal visual impairment.

doi: 10.1038/nature17000

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Therapeutic efficacy of the small molecule GS-5734 against Ebola virus in rhesus monkeys p.381

The discovery is reported of a small molecule drug, GS-5734, which has antiviral activity against Ebola virus and other filoviruses, and is capable of providing post-exposure therapeutic protection against lethal disease in 100% of drug-treated nonhuman primates infected with Ebola virus; the drug targets viral RNA polymerase and can distribute to sanctuary sites (such as testes, eyes and brain), suggesting that it may be able to clear persistent virus infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature17180

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Hepatitis B virus X protein identifies the Smc5/6 complex as a host restriction factor p.386

Hepatitis B virus X protein stimulates transcription from the viral DNA episome by hijacking the host ubiquitin machinery to target the Smc5/6 complex for degradation.

doi: 10.1038/nature17170

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Sequence-dependent but not sequence-specific piRNA adhesion traps mRNAs to the germ plasm p.390

Maternal mRNAs are tethered within the Drosophila germ plasm via base-pairing interactions between mRNAs and piRNPs containing the Aub Piwi protein; the preference for certain mRNAs to be tethered appears to be related to their longer length, which provides more potential piRNP-binding sites, and the results suggest a new role for piRNAs in germ-cell specification independent of their role in transposon silencing.

doi: 10.1038/nature17150

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Crystal structure of a substrate-engaged SecY protein-translocation channel p.395

The crystal structure of a substrate-engaged SecY channel and the SecA ATPase, which provides molecular insight into the process of protein translocation across membranes.

doi: 10.1038/nature17163

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