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Editorials

アフリカの優れた科学者を支援し、育てながら、世界の科学の舞台へ引き上げていこうとする新しい試みを、応援していく必要がある。

Africa’s elite p.275

A new forum promises to bring deserved prestige to outstanding African researchers, and demonstrates the continent’s untapped potential.

doi: 10.1038/531275a

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世界中の至る所で都市化が進み、さまざまな問題が生じているが、その解決にも科学の力は役に立つ。

Metropolis now p.275

Growing urbanization is heralding a new era of science in the city.

doi: 10.1038/531275b

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10年前に登場した「DNA折り紙」技術は、今や大きく発展し、花開く兆しが見えてきた。

Practical DNA p.276

The promise of DNA origami shows signs of coming to fruition a decade after its debut.

doi: 10.1038/531276a

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News

脳への電気刺激で、スポーツ選手の持久力が向上したり疲労が回復したりする可能性が。

‘Brain doping’ may improve athletes’ performance p.283

Electrical stimulation seems to boost endurance in preliminary studies.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19534

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世界でトップクラスのプロ棋士に勝利したグーグル社の人工知能「アルファ碁」の、今後の応用には課題も。

What Google’s winning Go algorithm will do next p.284

AlphaGo’s techniques could have broad uses, but moving beyond games is a challenge.

doi: 10.1038/531284a

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43万年前の試料のDNA塩基配列解読から、現生人類とネアンデルタール人の分岐時期の手掛かりが。

Oldest ancient-human DNA details dawn of Neanderthals p.286

Sequence of 430,000-year-old DNA pushes back divergence of humans and Neanderthals.

doi: 10.1038/531286a

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2016年のアーベル賞は、フェルマーの最終定理を証明した英国人数学者のアンドリュー・ワイルズに。

Fermat's last theorem earns Andrew Wiles the Abel Prize p.287

Mathematician receives coveted award for solving three-century-old problem in number theory.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19552

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ロシアとヨーロッパが共同で進める火星探査機「エクソマーズ2016」が打ち上げに成功。

Mars launch to test collaboration between Europe and Russia p.288

Joint ExoMars mission launches lander and orbiter — a rover is planned for 2018.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19547

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NASAの火星探査機「インサイト」の打ち上げ延期で、多大なコストが掛かる恐れも。

NASA Mars woes could delay other planetary missions p.289

Plan to postpone launch of InSight probe will cost agency an extra US$150 million.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19549

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News Features

宇宙:謎の惑星Xを探す

On the hunt for a mystery planet p.290

太陽系の外縁部に存在する可能性のある未確認の第9惑星をめぐって、天文学者たちが研究を続けている。

doi: 10.1038/531290a

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神経科学:アルツハイマー病の伝播をめぐる最新の激論

The red-hot debate about transmissible Alzheimer's p.294

アルツハイマー病がヒトからヒトへと感染するという異論の多い説の真偽をはっきりさせようと、研究者たちが競い合っている。

doi: 10.1038/531294a

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News & Views

材料科学:結晶成長を促進する仕組み

Materials science: How crystals get an edge p.308

広く使われている半導体のナノワイヤーが成長する仕組みが、形成過程の電子顕微鏡観察によって明らかになった。今回の知見によって、このようなナノワイヤーの結晶相の操作が可能になりそうで、これは材料科学における重要な進歩の1つとなるだろう。

doi: 10.1038/531308a

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生体臨床医学:視覚の幹細胞治療

Biomedicine: Visionary stem-cell therapies p.309

幹細胞工学の手法を使って、ウサギでの角膜移植と小児での透明な水晶体の再生が成功したことが報告された。これらの成果は、幹細胞工学の治療への応用の可能性を実証するものだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature17305

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地球温暖化:気候変動に中国が及ぼす影響

Global warming: China’s contribution to climate change p.310

中国での化石燃料使用による二酸化炭素排出量はこの数十年間で急激に増大してきたが、全球的な気候変動への中国の関与の相対的な量は意外なほど一定であることが分かってきた。

doi: 10.1038/531310a

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マイクロロボティクス:泳ぐマイクロロボットをデザインする

Microrobotics: Swimmers by design p.312

構造化された光の投影によって形態の制御が可能なソフトなマイクロロボットが作られた。このロボットは、水中を遊泳する原生動物で見られるものに似た、進行波状の体の変形によって自己推進する。

doi: 10.1038/531312a

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ウイルス学:B型肝炎ウイルスのXファイル

Virology: The X-Files of hepatitis B p.313

B型肝炎ウイルスのHBxタンパク質は、Smc5/6複合体を標的として分解する宿主細胞酵素を乗っ取って勝手に使うことが明らかになった。今回のこの知見によって、Smc5/6が細胞の抗ウイルス因子であることが突き止められた。

doi: 10.1038/531313a

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サンゴ礁:時間を巻き戻してみる

Coral reefs: Turning back time p.314

天然のサンゴ礁の周辺の海水の酸性度を下げてやると、サンゴ礁の石灰化が大幅に促進されることがin situ実験によって明らかになった。このことは、海洋酸性化がすでにサンゴ礁の成長を遅くしている可能性を示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/nature17302

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Articles

ナノスケール材料:ヒ化ガリウムナノワイヤーにおける界面ダイナミクスと結晶相の切り替わり

Interface dynamics and crystal phase switching in GaAs nanowires p.317

Crystal phase switching between zinc-blende and wurtzite phases during the growth of gallium arsenide nanowires is observed experimentally, and explained via changes in the geometry of the catalytic droplet sitting on top of the growing nanowire.

doi: 10.1038/nature17148

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再生医療:視覚機能獲得を伴う、内在性幹細胞を用いた水晶体再生

Lens regeneration using endogenous stem cells with gain of visual function p.323

A new procedure for cataract removal that preserves lens epithelial progenitor cells in mammals, which require Pax6 and Bmi1 for their self-renewal, achieves lens regeneration in rabbits, macaques and in infants with cataracts.

doi: 10.1038/nature17181

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構造生物学:セルロースの生合成と膜透過をin crystalloで観察

Observing cellulose biosynthesis and membrane translocation in crystallo p.329

Here the authors use in crystallo enzymology to obtain structural snapshots of a complete cellulose biosynthesis cycle and reveal the mechanism by which the bacterial cellulose synthase BcsA–BcsB translocates the nascent cellulose polymer.

doi: 10.1038/nature16966

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構造生物学:ムスカリン性アセチルコリン受容体M1およびM4の結晶構造

Crystal structures of the M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors p.335

X-ray crystal structures of the M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, revealing differences in the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites that help to explain the subtype selectivity of drugs targeting this family of receptors.

doi: 10.1038/nature17188

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Letters

素粒子宇宙物理学:マイクロクエーサーであるはくちょう座V404星のアウトバーストに関連する陽電子消滅の痕跡

Positron annihilation signatures associated with the outburst of the microquasar V404 Cygni p.341

Observations of γ-ray emission from the microquasar V404 Cygni during a recent period of strong flaring activity show spectral features at around 511 kiloelectronvolts, which are clear signatures of variable positron annihilation, implying a high rate of positron production.

doi: 10.1038/nature16978

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惑星科学:タルシスの後期形成と初期火星に対するその影響

Late Tharsis formation and implications for early Mars p.344

By calculating the rotational figure of Mars and its surface topography before the Tharsis volcanic region caused true polar wander, it is shown that Tharsis formed during the Noachian and Hesperian periods at about the same time as the valley networks; early Mars climate simulations suggest icy precipitation in a latitudinal band in the southern hemisphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature17171

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ナノスケール材料:原子時計遷移による分子スピンキュービットのコヒーレンス増強

Enhancing coherence in molecular spin qubits via atomic clock transitions p.348

Magnetic molecules are candidates for solid-state spin qubits from which a quantum computer might be constructed, but the magnetic interactions between such molecules typically lead to unwanted decoherence; now magnetic molecules have been designed in such a way that their spin dynamics are energetically protected against the decoherence-inducing interactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature16984

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光学・フォトニクス:光によるキラルネマチック液晶のらせん軸の三次元制御

Three-dimensional control of the helical axis of a chiral nematic liquid crystal by light p.352

Chiral nematic liquid crystals are self-organized helical superstructures in which the helices can stand or lie, and lie in either a uniform or a random way; here, the helices are reversibly driven from a standing arrangement to a uniform lying arrangement and then rotated in-plane—solely by light.

doi: 10.1038/nature17141

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気候科学:全球の気候強制に対する中国の排出の寄与

The contribution of China’s emissions to global climate forcing p.357

Using a global coupled biogeochemistry–climate model and a chemistry and transport model reveals that China’s present-day global radiative forcing is about ten per cent of the current global total, made up of both warming and cooling contributions; if in the future China reduces the cooling forcings, global warming could accelerate.

doi: 10.1038/nature17165

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生物地球化学:海洋酸性化の改善はサンゴ礁の純石灰化を増進する

Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification p.362

A manipulative experiment in which a reef is alkalinized in situ shows that calcification rates are likely to be lower already than they were in pre-industrial times because of acidification.

doi: 10.1038/nature17155

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生物海洋学:魚類の産卵海域に集まる多様な発声性海生哺乳類種の大群

Vast assembly of vocal marine mammals from diverse species on fish spawning ground p.366

Vocalizations were recorded for over eight distinct whale species as they converged on a shoal of herring to feed; the predators divided the shoal into overlapping but species-specific foraging sectors and the activities of the whales changed between day and night.

doi: 10.1038/nature16960

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神経科学:知覚経験はVIPニューロンのIGF1発現を介して皮質抑制を調節する

Sensory experience regulates cortical inhibition by inducing IGF1 in VIP neurons p.371

Igf1 is identified in mice as an experience-induced gene that functions cell-autonomously to increase inhibitory input onto a disinhibitory subtype of GABAergic neurons in the cortex, affecting the downstream excitation–inhibition balance within circuits that regulate visual acuity, and providing a novel example of experience modulating neural plasticity.

doi: 10.1038/nature17187

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再生医療:ヒトiPS細胞からの協調的な眼組織発生と角膜機能の回復

Co-ordinated ocular development from human iPS cells and recovery of corneal function p.376

A protocol has been developed to use human induced pluripotent stem cells to obtain a self-formed ectodermal autonomous multizone, which includes distinct cell lineages of the eye, including the ocular surface ectoderm, lens, neuro-retina, and retinal pigment epithelium that can be expanded to form a functional corneal epithelium when transplanted to an animal model of corneal visual impairment.

doi: 10.1038/nature17000

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創薬:エボラウイルスに感染したアカゲザルでの低分子化合物GS-5734の治療効果

Therapeutic efficacy of the small molecule GS-5734 against Ebola virus in rhesus monkeys p.381

The discovery is reported of a small molecule drug, GS-5734, which has antiviral activity against Ebola virus and other filoviruses, and is capable of providing post-exposure therapeutic protection against lethal disease in 100% of drug-treated nonhuman primates infected with Ebola virus; the drug targets viral RNA polymerase and can distribute to sanctuary sites (such as testes, eyes and brain), suggesting that it may be able to clear persistent virus infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature17180

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ウイルス学:B型肝炎ウイルスXタンパク質によって宿主の制限因子であることが明らかになったSmc5/6複合体

Hepatitis B virus X protein identifies the Smc5/6 complex as a host restriction factor p.386

Hepatitis B virus X protein stimulates transcription from the viral DNA episome by hijacking the host ubiquitin machinery to target the Smc5/6 complex for degradation.

doi: 10.1038/nature17170

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発生生物学:配列依存的だが配列特異的ではないpiRNAの接着によりmRNAは生殖質に捕らえられる

Sequence-dependent but not sequence-specific piRNA adhesion traps mRNAs to the germ plasm p.390

Maternal mRNAs are tethered within the Drosophila germ plasm via base-pairing interactions between mRNAs and piRNPs containing the Aub Piwi protein; the preference for certain mRNAs to be tethered appears to be related to their longer length, which provides more potential piRNP-binding sites, and the results suggest a new role for piRNAs in germ-cell specification independent of their role in transposon silencing.

doi: 10.1038/nature17150

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構造生物学:SecYタンパク質の基質でふさがった膜透過チャネルの結晶構造

Crystal structure of a substrate-engaged SecY protein-translocation channel p.395

The crystal structure of a substrate-engaged SecY channel and the SecA ATPase, which provides molecular insight into the process of protein translocation across membranes.

doi: 10.1038/nature17163

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