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Editorials

Natureは、Nature Podcastの新シリーズとしてAudiofileを設け、音に関する研究の、言葉では表現できない音情報を提供する。

Listen up p.121

Human echolocation kicks off the Nature podcast’s new series on sound science

doi: 10.1038/517121b

新規抗生物質の発見と既存薬の新たな効能の発見という2つの出来事が示すように、創造性は病気との闘いの強力な武器となる。

Reasons to be cheerful p.121

As two new fronts in the war on disease demonstrate, creativity remains a key weapon for scientists in the hunt for drugs.

doi: 10.1038/517121a

News

科学者たちは緊縮財政に必死に抗っているが、ギリシャの科学は悲劇的状況に。

Greek science haunted by hydra of problems p.127

Leading researchers hang on despite austerity, but their Herculean efforts may not be enough.

doi: 10.1038/517127a

がんゲノムアトラス(TCGA)計画が完了し、次に進むべき方向はさらなる解読なのか、機能解析なのかについて議論が。

End of cancer atlas prompts rethink p.128

Geneticists debate whether focus should shift from sequencing genomes to analysing function.

doi: 10.1038/517128a

韓国の海洋調査船はこれまで、政府主導の鉱床探査調査が中心だったが、科学界の意見を取り入れてその対象を幅広い海洋研究へ拡大することに。

Korea opens up its ocean science p.129

Vessels used mainly for seabed surveys will expand in focus.

doi: 10.1038/517129a

パーティー・ドラッグでおなじみのケタミンに、抗うつ薬として新たな関心が。

Rave drug tested against depression p.130

Companies and clinicians turn to ketamine to treat mental-health disorder as pipeline of new drugs dries up.

doi: 10.1038/517130a

News Features

健康:乗り越えられない溝

Military health: The insurmountable gulf p.132

科学者や退役軍人たちによる湾岸戦争病の認知をめぐる闘いは、戦争終結から24年経った今もなお続いている。

doi: 10.1038/517132a

環境:汚染パトロール

Environmental science: Pollution patrol p.136

個人レベルでの大気汚染の監視が、小形で安価なセンサーの普及によって可能になってきた。

doi: 10.1038/517136a

News & Views

海洋生物地球化学:陸域と海域の境界となる沿岸域の炭素

Ocean biogeochemistry: Carbon at the coastal interface p.148

沿岸海洋域が二酸化炭素のシンクとしてどの程度の働きをするのかはよく分かっていない。300万を超える観測結果に基づく推定値は、このようなシンクが考えられていたよりも小さく、高緯度域に集中していることを示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/nature14082

生物物理学:酵素は熱波に波乗りして広がる

Biophysics: Enzymes surf the heat wave p.149

一部の酵素の分子拡散率は、反応を触媒する際に上昇するが、その理由は解明されていなかった。触媒反応によって生じた熱がタンパク質全体に分散し、それによって酵素分子が動かされると考えられる結果が今回得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature14079

気候科学:留保分となる「燃やせない」化石燃料

Climate science: Unburnable fossil-fuel reserves p.150

短期から中期的な将来に、大幅な地球温暖化を回避しながら、我々が採掘して燃料として使用できる地球の化石燃料の量はどのくらいなのだろうか。1つのモデルからその答えが得られ、このような「燃やせない」燃料がどの地域にあるかが示された。

doi: 10.1038/517150a

がん:再増殖を介して生じる治療耐性

Cancer: Resistance through repopulation p.152

膀胱がんの細胞は化学療法によって死滅する際にプロスタグランジンE2を放出することが知られている。逆説的だが、この分子は生き残ったがん幹細胞の増殖を促進し、これが腫瘍の再増殖につながることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14075

量子情報:長距離配送用にスピンに記憶させる

Quantum information: Spin memories in for the long haul p.153

最長で6時間の寿命を持つスピン系が今回明らかにされた。こうした系は、量子情報交換ネットワークの構築に使用できると考えられ、もし光学的伝送が失敗しても「量子メモリースティック」として配送できる。

doi: 10.1038/517153a

再生生物学:万能な上に可塑性のある肝臓

Regenerative biology: The versatile and plastic liver p.155

損傷を受けた後の肝臓再生にどの種類の細胞が関わっているのかについて、これまでに得られている証拠は相反するものだった。肝臓が損傷を受けると、肝細胞から管様の前駆細胞が生じることが今回明らかになった。この知見はこれまでの相反するデータに折り合いをつけることになる。

doi: 10.1038/517155a

神経科学:神経が作る三次元コンパス

Neuroscience: A three-dimensional neural compass p.156

哺乳類の脳の神経が作り出すナビゲーションシステムが三次元コンパスとして働くという知見は、哺乳類が複雑な環境内で自身の位置をどうやって確認するのかという問題の解明に役立つ。

doi: 10.1038/nature14076

Articles

神経科学:コウモリ脳内の三次元的な頭部方向符号化機構

Three-dimensional head-direction coding in the bat brain p.159

A study of freely moving bats provides new insights into how the brain encodes a three-dimensional neural compass; neurons were identified encoding the three Euler rotation angles of the head (azimuth, pitch, and roll) and recordings from these head-direction cells revealed a toroidal model of spatial orientation mapped out by cells tuned to two circular variables (azimuth × pitch).

doi: 10.1038/nature14031

微生物学:ヒト腸内のバクテロイデス門細菌は利己的機構によって酵母マンナンを利用できる

Human gut Bacteroidetes can utilize yeast mannan through a selfish mechanism p.165

Mannan, a component of yeast cell walls, is shown to be a viable food source for Bacteroides thetaiotamicron, a dominant member of the gut microbiota, which catabolizes the mannan ‘selfishly’—countering the general assumption that multiple members of the gut microbiota take a role in, and benefit from, polysaccharide catabolism.

doi: 10.1038/nature13995

微生物学:グルタチオンは細胞内病原体の毒性遺伝子発現を促す

Glutathione activates virulence gene expression of an intracellular pathogen p.170

This study shows that glutathione, a ubiquitous antioxidant, is also a critical signalling molecule that allosterically activates the master virulence regulator in the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14029

Letters

天文学:低質量星内の重い元素合成に関する温度と年代学

The temperature and chronology of heavy-element synthesis in low-mass stars p.174

Spectrographically obtained zirconium, niobium and technetium abundances in a sample of low-mass stars of type S are used to determine that, in these stars, heavy elements are synthesized by the slow-neutron-capture process at a temperature of less than about 250 million kelvin, and that the process began one million to three million years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature14050

量子物理学:6時間のコヒーレンス時間を有する固体における光学的にアドレス可能な核スピン

Optically addressable nuclear spins in a solid with a six-hour coherence time p.177

An essential ingredient of future worldwide quantum communication is the generation of long-lived entangled quantum states; a coherence time of six hours is now reported for optically addressable nuclear spins in europium-doped yttrium orthosilicate.

doi: 10.1038/nature14025

有機化学:触媒を用いたZ選択的交差メタセシス反応による高付加価値アルコールと高酸化状態化合物の合成

High-value alcohols and higher-oxidation-state compounds by catalytic Z-selective cross-metathesis p.181

A ruthenium–disulfide catalyst is presented that is effective in generating compounds of medical and industrial utility (alcohols that contain a phenol, an aldehyde, or a carboxylic acid) by room-temperature, inexpensive, high-yielding cross-metathesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14061

気候科学:地球温暖化を2°Cに制限した場合の未使用の化石燃料の地理的分布

The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 °C p.187

Policy makers have generally agreed that the average global temperature rise caused by greenhouse gas emissions should not exceed 2 °C above the average global temperature of pre-industrial times. It has been estimated that to have at least a 50 per cent chance of keeping warming below 2 °C throughout the twenty-first century, the cumulative carbon emissions between 2011 and 2050 need to be limited to around 1,100 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (Gt CO2). However, the greenhouse gas emissions contained in present estimates of global fossil fuel reserves are around three times higher than this, and so the unabated use of all current fossil fuel reserves is incompatible with a warming limit of 2 °C. Here we use a single integrated assessment model that contains estimates of the quantities, locations and nature of the world’s oil, gas and coal reserves and resources, and which is shown to be consistent with a wide variety of modelling approaches with different assumptions, to explore the implications of this emissions limit for fossil fuel production in different regions. Our results suggest that, globally, a third of oil reserves, half of gas reserves and over 80 per cent of current coal reserves should remain unused from 2010 to 2050 in order to meet the target of 2 °C. We show that development of resources in the Arctic and any increase in unconventional oil production are incommensurate with efforts to limit average global warming to 2 °C. Our results show that policy makers’ instincts to exploit rapidly and completely their territorial fossil fuels are, in aggregate, inconsistent with their commitments to this temperature limit. Implementation of this policy commitment would also render unnecessary continued substantial expenditure on fossil fuel exploration, because any new discoveries could not lead to increased aggregate production.

doi: 10.1038/nature14016

地球:アイスランド・バルダルブンガ火山系のリフト活動における岩脈セグメントの水平方向の成長

Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland p.191

Seismicity and ground deformation measurements show how a recent segmented dyke intrusion in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system in Iceland grew laterally for 45 kilometres over 14 days; dyke opening and seismicity were focused at the most distal segment, where lateral dyke growth with segment barrier breaking by pressure build-up occurred.

doi: 10.1038/nature14111

進化学:板皮網胴甲類の交尾と顎口類の体内受精の起源

Copulation in antiarch placoderms and the origin of gnathostome internal fertilization p.196

The discovery of claspers in fossils of antiarch placoderms, an ancient group of armoured fish, suggests that internal fertilization was the ancestral type of reproduction for all jawed vertebrates: this contrasts with the current understanding that external fertilization must be the ancestral state.

doi: 10.1038/nature13825

神経科学:樹状突起分枝全体のカルシウムトランジェントの広がりから予測できる場所受容野の性質

Calcium transient prevalence across the dendritic arbour predicts place field properties p.200

In vivo evidence for the existence of regenerative dendritic events in place cell dendrites of awake, behaving mice suggests an active role for dendritic spikes in building the representation of space in the hippocampus.

doi: 10.1038/nature13871

感染症:マイクロバイオームの正確な再構築が、胆汁酸を介したClostridium difficile耐性を回復させる

Precision microbiome reconstitution restores bile acid mediated resistance to Clostridium difficile p.205

A fraction of the intestinal microbiota as precise as a single bacterial species confers infection resistance by synthesizing Clostridium difficult-inhibiting metabolites from host-derived bile salts.

doi: 10.1038/nature13828

がん:PGE2が誘導するがん再増殖の阻害は膀胱がんの化学療法耐性を無効化する

Blocking PGE2-induced tumour repopulation abrogates bladder cancer chemoresistance p.209

Using human bladder cancer xenograft models, a new mechanism involving an active proliferative response of cancer stem cells to chemotherapy-induced damage is shown, driven by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release in a manner similar to PGE2-induced wound repair; pharmacological inhibition of the PGE2/COX2 axis by celecoxib attenuates chemoresistance, suggesting a possible adjunctive therapy for bladder carcinomas.

doi: 10.1038/nature14034

免疫学:胚中心反応でのT–B細胞のもつれ合いとICOSL誘導性のフィードフォワード調節

T–B-cell entanglement and ICOSL-driven feed-forward regulation of germinal centre reaction p.214

Interactions between T and B cells in the germinal centre are brief but involve extensive cell-surface contact in an entangled mode; ICOSL promotes T–B entanglement and B-cell acquisition of CD40L, which drives B cells to upregulate ICOSL, thus forming an intercellular feed-forward loop that is required for efficient positive selection and development of the bone marrow plasma cell compartment.

doi: 10.1038/nature13803

細胞生物学:EFF-1を介した再生軸索融合はアポトーシス経路の構成因子を必要とする

EFF-1-mediated regenerative axonal fusion requires components of the apoptotic pathway p.219

Unlike the limited post-injury neuronal regeneration in humans, severed axons in C. elegant can regenerate through a cellular fusion mechanism; this study identifies the molecular basis for this process which includes phosphatidylserine recognition and a role for specific molecules that also act in apoptosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14102

分子生物学:ポリADPリボシル化シグナルによるユビキチンリガーゼRNF146のアロステリックな活性化

Allosteric activation of the RNF146 ubiquitin ligase by a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation signal p.223

Structural and biochemical approaches are used to show how RNF146 activity is allosterically regulated by the binding of poly(ADP-ribose) ligand, and how substrate specificity is achieved with protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and ubiquitination occurring in the same protein complex.

doi: 10.1038/nature13826

生物物理学:触媒回転過程で放出される熱は酵素の拡散を促進する

The heat released during catalytic turnover enhances the diffusion of an enzyme p.227

It has been traditionally assumed that the heat released during a single enzymatic catalytic event does not perturb the enzyme in any way; however, here single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is used to show that, for enzymes that catalyse chemical reactions with large reaction enthalpies, the heat released at the protein's active site during catalysis transiently displaces the protein's centre-of-mass, essentially giving rise to a recoil effect that propels the enzyme.

doi: 10.1038/nature14043

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