Volume 516 Number 7531



Keep asking the question p.287

Scientists must push to preserve a small part of a large US survey that provides essential information on the ever-changing scientific workforce.

doi: 10.1038/516287a


Spin cycle p.287

Pressures in all stages of the news-making process can lead to hype in science reporting.

doi: 10.1038/516287b


Honest brokers p.288

Climate negotiations in Lima stumbled on transparency, but there is time to adjust.

doi: 10.1038/516288a



Ebola threatens a way of life p.295

A front-line report from Sierra Leone examines efforts to change hearts and minds in West Africa’s villages.

doi: 10.1038/516295a


Bird family tree is in fine feather p.297

Birds get fresh perches in revamped tree of life built by vast collaboration.

doi: 10.1038/516297a


Putin’s Russia divides scientists p.298

Are geopolitical tensions destroying important links with the West, or can Russian research go it alone?

doi: 10.1038/516298a


365 days: 2014 in review p.300

Comets, stem cells and cosmic dust are among the year's top stories.

doi: 10.1038/516300a


365 days: Images of the year p.304

Eruptions, comets and a see-through mouse all captured the imagination in 2014.

doi: 10.1038/516304a

News Features


365 days: Nature’s 10 p.311


doi: 10.1038/516311a

News & Views


Organic synthesis: Better chemistry through radicals p.332


doi: 10.1038/516332a

合成生物学:toehold gene switchが作り出す大きな成果

Synthetic biology: Toehold gene switches make big footprints p.333

RNAを使うtoehold switchと呼ばれる翻訳調節装置の開発によって、ほとんどどんなRNAからもタンパク質を産生でき、正確で低コストの診断が可能になる新たな時代への道が開かれるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/516333a


Malaria: How vector mosquitoes beat the heat p.334


doi: 10.1038/nature14073


Conservation: Mind the gaps p.336


doi: 10.1038/516336a


Materials science: Two steps for a magnetoelectric switch p.337


doi: 10.1038/516337a


Influenza: An RNA-synthesizing machine p.338


doi: 10.1038/516338a


2014 Editors' choice p.340

本年度に掲載されたNews & Viewsの中から編集部が精選した8編。

doi: 10.1038/516340a



Functionalized olefin cross-coupling to construct carbon–carbon bonds p.343

Highly substituted carbon–carbon bonds are constructed using a simple iron catalyst and an inexpensive silane: more than 60 examples of this reaction — in which heteroatom-substituted olefins are reacted with electron-deficient olefins — are presented.

doi: 10.1038/nature14006


An AUTS2–Polycomb complex activates gene expression in the CNS p.349

Polycomb group proteins are known to maintain gene repression during development; however, when autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2) associates with some Polycomb group complexes, these complexes have an unexpected gene activation role, offering new insight into the role of AUTS2 in neurological disorders.

doi: 10.1038/nature13921


Structure of influenza A polymerase bound to the viral RNA promoter p.355

The crystal structure of the bat-specific influenza A polymerase in complex with the viral RNA promoter is presented, revealing how binding of the 5′ end of the viral RNA is required to activate or enhance the polymerase allosterically.

doi: 10.1038/nature14008


Structural insight into cap-snatching and RNA synthesis by influenza polymerase p.361

Atomic resolution crystal structures of influenza A and B polymerases are presented; comparison of these structures provides mechanistic insight into influenza polymerase functions, explaining the processes of cap-snatching and cap-dependent priming, which are unique to segmented negative-strand RNA viruses.

doi: 10.1038/nature14009



The exclusion of a significant range of ages in a massive star cluster p.367

Hubble Space Telescope observations of the stellar cluster NGC 1651, which is approximately two billion years old, show that the colour–brightness distribution of stars old enough to have left the main sequence can be explained only by a single-age population, despite having a feature usually interpreted to indicate an age spread of more than 300 million years.

doi: 10.1038/nature13969


Deterministic switching of ferromagnetism at room temperature using an electric field p.370

Multiferroic devices that can switch magnetization with electric field at room temperature are desirable, but in BiFeO3 the required direct 180-degree switch is thermodynamically forbidden; here it is shown that such switching is possible because the kinetics of the switching process favours a two-step sequence of partial switching.

doi: 10.1038/nature14004


Reconstruction and control of a time-dependent two-electron wave packet p.374

The dynamics of two correlated electrons can be reconstructed from the quantum interference of low-lying doubly excited states in helium, as observed in attosecond transient-absorption spectra, and can be controlled by tuning the interaction with a visible laser field of variable intensity.

doi: 10.1038/nature14026


The contribution of the Precambrian continental lithosphere to global H2 production p.379

The production of hydrogen gas from the Precambrian continental lithosphere has been underestimated; taking into account hydrogen from serpentinization and radiolysis may double estimates previously based on marine systems alone.

doi: 10.1038/nature14017


Global protected area expansion is compromised by projected land-use and parochialism p.383

Internationally coordinated expansion of the global protected area network to 17% could triple the average protection of species ranges and ecoregions; if projected land-use changes and consequent habitat loss until 2040 occur, currently feasible protection levels will not be achievable, and more than 1,000 threatened species face reductions in the range of over 50%.

doi: 10.1038/nature14032


Signatures of aestivation and migration in Sahelian malaria mosquito populations p.387

Malaria-carrying mosquitoes nearly disappear in the dry season, yet they reappear suddenly following the first rains; using surveys of mosquito densities, the authors characterize the population dynamics of the three main vector species and use these to infer persistence by long-distance migration in two species and aestivation in the third.

doi: 10.1038/nature13987


A relative shift in cloacal location repositions external genitalia in amniote evolution p.391

It has been known for some time that limbs share at least some of their molecular patterning mechanism with external genitalia; here, this connection is examined in a variety of species, revealing that once-shared developmental trajectories could help to explain the observed patterning similarities.

doi: 10.1038/nature13819


Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors p.395

Cold exposure activates brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the sympathetic nervous system, and previous studies have reported inhibitory effects of the purinergic transmitter adenosine in BAT from hamster or rat; here adenosine/A2A signalling is shown to be involved in sympathetic activation of human and murine brown adipocytes to allow protection of mice from diet-induced obesity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13816


Modelling human development and disease in pluripotent stem-cell-derived gastric organoids p.400

The in vitro generation, from pluripotent stem cells, of three-dimensional human gastric organoids (hGOs) that contain a physiological gastric epithelium comprising both progenitor and differentiated cell types, and have expected functional characteristics is described, as is modelling the pathophysiological response of the human stomach to Helicobacter pylori using these hGOs.

doi: 10.1038/nature13863


Primate-specific endogenous retrovirus-driven transcription defines naive-like stem cells p.405

An extensive analysis of HERVH (a primate-specific endogenous retrovirus) expression in human pluripotent stem cells is presented, identifying a sub-population of cells within cultured human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells that has characteristics of naive-state cells — the study provides evidence for a new primate-specific transcriptional circuitry regulating pluripotency.

doi: 10.1038/nature13804


Protein quality control at the inner nuclear membrane p.410

A protein degradation pathway is found at the inner nuclear membrane that is distinct from, but complementary to, endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation, and which is mediated by the Asi protein complex; a genome-wide library screening of yeast identifies more than 20 substrates of this pathway, which is shown to target mislocalized integral membrane proteins for degradation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14096


Mitochondrial UPR-regulated innate immunity provides resistance to pathogen infection p.414

A link between an intracellular stress response, bacterial infection and triggering of the innate immune response is shown in Caenorhabditis elegant; exposure to the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa caused activation of the transcription factor ATFS-1 and innate immunity that is regulated by the mitochondrial unfolded protein response.

doi: 10.1038/nature13818


Rapid development of broadly influenza neutralizing antibodies through redundant mutations p.418

The main pathway of somatic mutations leading to the generation of high affinity broadly neutralizing antibodies against the influenza haemagglutinin stem is defined.

doi: 10.1038/nature13764

がん:in vivoでのCRISPR/Cas9系を使った遺伝子操作による発がん性染色体再編成

In vivo engineering of oncogenic chromosomal rearrangements with the CRISPR/Cas9 system p.423

The CRISPR/Cas system has been used to induce the Eml4–Alk chromosomal inversion in mice, a characteristic chromosomal rearrangement seen in human non-small cell lung cancers; the mice developed lung cancer and responded to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib, which is used to treat lung cancer patients with the EML4–ALK rearrangement; this general strategy can be used to engineer other disease-associated chromosomal rearrangements in mice and potentially in other organisms.

doi: 10.1038/nature13902


Rapid modelling of cooperating genetic events in cancer through somatic genome editing p.428

The CRISPR/Cas system has been used in mice for genome editing to introduce genetic alterations found in human lung tumours, and these genome modifications resulted in mouse lung tumours showing different histopathologies depending on the genes altered; the CRISPR/Cas system offers improved and faster ways to create animal models of human diseases such as cancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature13906


Cohesin-dependent globules and heterochromatin shape 3D genome architecture in S. pombe p.432

Genome-wide chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) is used to investigate three-dimensional genome organization in Schizosaccharomyces bombe; small domains of chromatin interact locally on chromosome arms to form globules, which depend on cohesin but not heterochromatin for formation, and heterochromatin at centromeres and telomeres provides crucial structural constraints to shape genome architecture.

doi: 10.1038/nature13833


R-loops induce repressive chromatin marks over mammalian gene terminators p.436

R-loops, which have been considered to be rare and potentially harmful transcriptional by-products, are now shown to be needed for antisense transcription and to induce repressive chromatin marks that reinforce pausing of transcription and thereby enhance its termination.

doi: 10.1038/nature13787

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