Volume 516 Number 7530



Ethical overkill p.143

Institutions should take a unified look at protections for research on human subjects.

doi: 10.1038/516143b


Room for growth p.143

The European Commission’s plans to allow individual countries a veto on the farming of genetically modified crops, although a compromise, should enable the technology to move forward.

doi: 10.1038/516143a


Protect and serve p.144

Nations must keep expanding conservation efforts to avoid a biodiversity crisis.

doi: 10.1038/516144a



Tsunami alerts fall short p.151

Ten years after the devastating Sumatra earthquake, warnings for the Indian Ocean go out, but often do not reach the people most at risk.

doi: 10.1038/516151a


Europe plans Moon landing p.153

Space-agency scientists present plan to piggyback on two missions.

doi: 10.1038/516153a


Ebola experts seek to expand testing p.154

Rapid local diagnosis is essential for curbing spread.

doi: 10.1038/516154a


T-cell therapy extends cancer survival to years p.156

Firms embrace costly immunotherapy to fight intractable leukaemias and lymphomas.

doi: 10.1038/516156a


Microsoft billionaire takes on cell biology p.157

New Allen institute will create simulations of cell behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/516157a

News Features


Biodiversity: Life – a status report p.158


doi: 10.1038/516158a


Stem cells: The black box of reprogramming p.162


doi: 10.1038/516162a

News & Views


Stem cells: A designer's guide to pluripotency p.172


doi: 10.1038/516172a


Materials science: Breakthrough for protons p.173


doi: 10.1038/nature14074


Microbiology: A beacon for bacterial tubulin p.175

FtsZタンパク質は輪のような構造を作って、これが細菌細胞を締め付けて分裂を可能にしている。肺炎連鎖球菌(Streptococcus pneumoniae)では、もう1つのタンパク質であるMapZが細胞中央の適切な位置にFtsZを誘導することが今回、明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14071


Structural biology: Calcium-activated proteins visualized p.176


doi: 10.1038/nature13944


Applied physics: The virtues of tiling p.178


doi: 10.1038/516178a


Hydrology: When wells run dry p.179


doi: 10.1038/516179a



Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of quaternary carbon stereocentres p.181

Carbon atoms to which four distinct carbon substituents are attached — quaternary carbon stereocentres — are common features of molecules found in nature; in this Review, the authors discuss catalytic enantioselective reactions that have been developed during the past decade for synthesizing organic molecules containing such carbon atoms.

doi: 10.1038/nature14007



Divergent reprogramming routes lead to alternative stem-cell states p.192

The forced expression of key transcription factors can induce somatic cells to acquire pluripotency characteristics; here high levels of reprogramming factors are used to induce mouse embryonic fibroblasts to a stable alternative pluripotent state with low intercellular adhesion.

doi: 10.1038/nature14047


Genome-wide characterization of the routes to pluripotency p.198

This study presents an extensive molecular characterization of the reprograming process by analysis of transcriptomic, epigenomic and proteomic data sets describing the routes to pluripotency; it finds distinct routes towards two stable pluripotent states characterized by distinct epigenetic events.

doi: 10.1038/nature14046


X-ray structure of a calcium-activated TMEM16 lipid scramblase p.207

The authors describe the structure of a Ca2+-activated lipid scramblase which catalyses the passive movement of lipids between the two leaflets of a lipid bilayer; the structure reveals the location of a regulatory calcium-binding site embedded within the membrane and the presence of a hydrophilic membrane-traversing cavity that is exposed to the lipid bilayer, where catalysis is likely to occur.

doi: 10.1038/nature13984


Structure and insights into the function of a Ca2+-activated Cl channel p.213

The X-ray crystal structure of a eukaryotic Ca2+-activated chloride channel, BEST1, and its function in liposomes are described; the structure shows that Ca2+ binds to the cytosolic region of this pentameric channel and reveals that the pore is approximately 95 Å long with at least 15 distinct anion-binding sites.

doi: 10.1038/nature13913



H2D+ observations give an age of at least one million years for a cloud core forming Sun-like stars p.219

Observations of emission and absorption lines of the deuterated trihydrogen cation (H2D+) from a dense interstellar cloud core, combined with chemical modelling, reveal that the core needed at least one million years to form Sun-like stars.

doi: 10.1038/nature13924


Ultrasensitive mechanical crack-based sensor inspired by the spider sensory system p.222

A mechanical crack-based sensor inspired by the mechanism spiders use to sense minute variations in stress offers ultrahigh sensitivity to pressure and vibration and can easily be mounted on human skin for the purposes of speech recognition and the monitoring of physiological signals.

doi: 10.1038/nature14002


Proton transport through one-atom-thick crystals p.227

Measurements show that monolayers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride are unexpectedly highly permeable to thermal protons and that their conductivity rapidly increases with temperature, but that no proton transport is detected for few-layer crystals.

doi: 10.1038/nature14015


Formation and properties of ice XVI obtained by emptying a type sII clathrate hydrate p.231

Gas hydrates are ice-like solids that have guest species encaged within a crystalline water framework, making the empty hydrate a natural — though long assumed to be inaccessible — point of reference; it is now shown that several days of continuous vacuum pumping removes all guests from neon hydrate, and the physical properties of the empty hydrate have been determined.

doi: 10.1038/nature14014


Isotopic constraints on marine and terrestrial N2O emissions during the last deglaciation p.234

Gas hydrates are ice-like solids that have guest species encaged within a crystalline water framework, making the empty hydrate a natural — though long assumed to be inaccessible — point of reference; it is now shown that several days of continuous vacuum pumping removes all guests from neon hydrate, and the physical properties of the empty hydrate have been determined.

doi: 10.1038/nature13971


Cell differentiation and germ–soma separation in Ediacaran animal embryo-like fossils p.238

Spheroidal microfossils from the Ediacaran Doushantuo phosphorites show clear signs of cell differentiation, programmed cell death, and separation between soma and germline, and seem to represent a hitherto unknown experiment in multicellular life like nothing on Earth today.

doi: 10.1038/nature13766


An evolutionary arms race between KRAB zinc-finger genes ZNF91/93 and SVA/L1 retrotransposons p.242

The authors show that two primate-specific genes encoding KRAB domain containing zinc finger proteins, ZNF91 and ZNF93, have evolved during the last 25 million years to repress retrotransposon families that emerged during this time period; according to the new data KZNF gene expansion limits the activity of newly emerged retrotransposons, which subsequently mutate to evade repression.

doi: 10.1038/nature13760


Dietary modulation of the microbiome affects autoinflammatory disease p.246

Pstpip2-mutant mice fed a high-fat diet are protected against inflammatory bone disease and bone erosion; this protection is associated with reductions in intestinal Prevotella levels and pro-IL-1β expression, and is dependent on the deletion of both caspases 1 and 8.

doi: 10.1038/nature13788


Structural and mechanistic insights into the bacterial amyloid secretion channel CsgG p.250

CsgG and CgsE form an encaging translocon for selective, iterative diffusion of curli subunits across the non-energized bacterial outer membrane.

doi: 10.1038/nature13768


Loss of signalling via Gα13 in germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma p.254

Inactivation of the S1PR2–Gα13–ARHGEF1 signalling pathway in mice allows Akt activation and promotes dissemination of germinal centre B cells, consistent with a role of function-disrupting mutations in the systemic dissemination of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

doi: 10.1038/nature13765


MapZ marks the division sites and positions FtsZ rings in Streptococcus pneumoniae p.259

A new mechanism is identified for correct placement of the division machinery in Streptococcus pneumoniae that relies on the novel factor MapZ to form ring structures at the cell equator; these structures move apart as the cell elongates, acting as permanent markers of division sites.

doi: 10.1038/nature13966


Programmable RNA recognition and cleavage by CRISPR/Cas9 p.263

In the presence of a short DNA oligonucleotide containing a protospacer adjacent motif, a guide-RNA-programmed Cas9 is able to specifically bind and/or cleave single-stranded RNA—this system can be used to isolate specific endogenous RNA transcripts from a cell lysate without any tag or modification.

doi: 10.1038/nature13769


Tyrosine phosphorylation of histone H2A by CK2 regulates transcriptional elongation p.267

A conserved tyrosine residue, Tyr 57, of histone H2A is phosphorylated by an unsuspected tyrosine kinase activity of casein kinase 2, influencing a series of histone marks associated with active transcription and regulating transcription elongation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13736


Regulation of RNA polymerase II activation by histone acetylation in single living cells p.272

The interplay of histone acetylation and RNA polymerase II activity is investigated using fluorescence microscopy; acetylation of H3 at Lys 27 enhances the recruitment of a transcriptional activator and accelerates the transition of RNA polymerase II from initiation to elongation, thus indicating that histone acetylation has a causal effect on two distinct steps in transcription activation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13714

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