目次

Editorials

EUは、加盟各国に対し、GM作物の栽培を独自に禁止できる権利を認めようとしており、これによってヨーロッパのGM技術は前進するはずだ。

Room for growth p.143

The European Commission’s plans to allow individual countries a veto on the farming of genetically modified crops, although a compromise, should enable the technology to move forward.

doi: 10.1038/516143a

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ヒトを対象とした研究の倫理審査はそれぞれの研究機関で独自に行われることが多いが、これを見直して、統一的な審査にすべきだ。

Ethical overkill p.143

Institutions should take a unified look at protections for research on human subjects.

doi: 10.1038/516143b

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生物多様性の危機に対処するため、各国は保護対策を強化する必要がある。

Protect and serve p.144

Nations must keep expanding conservation efforts to avoid a biodiversity crisis.

doi: 10.1038/516144a

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News

スマトラ沖地震を契機として整備されたインド洋の津波警報システムには、まださまざまな課題が。

Tsunami alerts fall short p.151

Ten years after the devastating Sumatra earthquake, warnings for the Indian Ocean go out, but often do not reach the people most at risk.

doi: 10.1038/516151a

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欧州宇宙機関(ESA)が、ロシアの月探査計画に参加して、月面探査する計画を。

Europe plans Moon landing p.153

Space-agency scientists present plan to piggyback on two missions.

doi: 10.1038/516153a

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西アフリカのエボラ出血熱流行地域での迅速な診断実施に向けて、専門家たちが模索を。

Ebola experts seek to expand testing p.154

Rapid local diagnosis is essential for curbing spread.

doi: 10.1038/516154a

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がんのCAR療法(改変T細胞を使った免疫療法)が、目覚ましい成果を。

T-cell therapy extends cancer survival to years p.156

Firms embrace costly immunotherapy to fight intractable leukaemias and lymphomas.

doi: 10.1038/516156a

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マイクロソフトの共同創業者で、大資産家のポール・アレンが、今度は細胞科学研究所を設立。

Microsoft billionaire takes on cell biology p.157

New Allen institute will create simulations of cell behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/516157a

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News Features

生物多様性:生命の現状

Biodiversity: Life – a status report p.158

種の絶滅は急速に進んでいるが、その実態把握は容易ではない。

doi: 10.1038/516158a

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幹細胞:初期化のブラックボックス

Stem cells: The black box of reprogramming p.162

科学者たちは数十年にわたって、成体細胞を胚細胞にする再プログラム化を行ってきたが、その仕組みがようやく分かり始めた。

doi: 10.1038/516162a

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News & Views

幹細胞:デザイナーのための多能性ガイド

Stem cells: A designer's guide to pluripotency p.172

ほぼ全ての種類の細胞を生じる多能性幹細胞は、成熟した細胞を操作することで作り出せる。この過程を徹底的に調べ直したことが、新種の多能性細胞の特徴付けにつながった。

doi: 10.1038/516172a

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材料科学:プロトンのための突破口

Materials science: Breakthrough for protons p.173

グラフェンと呼ばれる原子1個分の厚みの材料は、ヘリウムのような小型の原子も通過させない。プロトンがグラフェンを通り抜けられるという発見は、新種の膜の開発を可能にし、燃料電池の研究を助けると考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/nature14074

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微生物学:細菌のチューブリンを導くもの

Microbiology: A beacon for bacterial tubulin p.175

FtsZタンパク質は輪のような構造を作って、これが細菌細胞を締め付けて分裂を可能にしている。肺炎連鎖球菌(Streptococcus pneumoniae)では、もう1つのタンパク質であるMapZが細胞中央の適切な位置にFtsZを誘導することが今回、明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14071

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構造生物学:カルシウム依存性タンパク質を見る

Structural biology: Calcium-activated proteins visualized p.176

ベストロフィンと脂質スクランブラーゼの結晶構造が初めて得られた。これらのタンパク質ファミリーは、性質が大きく異なる基質を膜を横断して輸送し、どちらのファミリーもカルシウムイオンに依存している。この輸送の仕組みが、結晶構造によって明らかになってきた。

doi: 10.1038/nature13944

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応用物理学:タイリングの効能

Applied physics: The virtues of tiling p.178

亀裂の入った金属薄膜を弾性のある基板上に置くと、機械的振動を極めて高い感度で検知できることが分かった。この結果は多数の生物系に適用されるタイリングの原理から着想を得たものだ。

doi: 10.1038/516178a

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水文学:井戸が干上がるとき

Hydrology: When wells run dry p.179

全球的な解析によって、持続可能ではない淡水供給源の使用に対する社会の依存度が大きくなっていることが明らかになった。このような資源への依存は、地下水の貯蔵量を激減させ、温暖化した世界で起こる水不足から、人類が立ち直る力を徐々に衰えさせる。

doi: 10.1038/516179a

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Review

有機化学:触媒を用いた第四級炭素立体中心のエナンチオ選択的合成

Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of quaternary carbon stereocentres p.181

Carbon atoms to which four distinct carbon substituents are attached — quaternary carbon stereocentres — are common features of molecules found in nature; in this Review, the authors discuss catalytic enantioselective reactions that have been developed during the past decade for synthesizing organic molecules containing such carbon atoms.

doi: 10.1038/nature14007

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Articles

幹細胞:分岐した再プログラム化経路は別々の幹細胞状態に至る

Divergent reprogramming routes lead to alternative stem-cell states p.192

The forced expression of key transcription factors can induce somatic cells to acquire pluripotency characteristics; here high levels of reprogramming factors are used to induce mouse embryonic fibroblasts to a stable alternative pluripotent state with low intercellular adhesion.

doi: 10.1038/nature14047

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幹細胞:多能性状態に至る複数経路のゲノム規模での特徴付け

Genome-wide characterization of the routes to pluripotency p.198

This study presents an extensive molecular characterization of the reprograming process by analysis of transcriptomic, epigenomic and proteomic data sets describing the routes to pluripotency; it finds distinct routes towards two stable pluripotent states characterized by distinct epigenetic events.

doi: 10.1038/nature14046

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構造生物学:カルシウム依存性TMEM16脂質スクランブラーゼのX線構造

X-ray structure of a calcium-activated TMEM16 lipid scramblase p.207

The authors describe the structure of a Ca2+-activated lipid scramblase which catalyses the passive movement of lipids between the two leaflets of a lipid bilayer; the structure reveals the location of a regulatory calcium-binding site embedded within the membrane and the presence of a hydrophilic membrane-traversing cavity that is exposed to the lipid bilayer, where catalysis is likely to occur.

doi: 10.1038/nature13984

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構造生物学:Ca2+依存性Clチャネルの構造、および機能に関する考察

Structure and insights into the function of a Ca2+-activated Cl channel p.213

The X-ray crystal structure of a eukaryotic Ca2+-activated chloride channel, BEST1, and its function in liposomes are described; the structure shows that Ca2+ binds to the cytosolic region of this pentameric channel and reveals that the pore is approximately 95 Å long with at least 15 distinct anion-binding sites.

doi: 10.1038/nature13913

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Letters

惑星科学:H2D+の観測から与えられた太陽類似星を形成する星雲コアの年齢は少なくとも100万年である

H2D+ observations give an age of at least one million years for a cloud core forming Sun-like stars p.219

The age of dense interstellar cloud cores, where stars and planets form, is a crucial parameter in star formation and difficult to measure. Some models predict rapid collapse, whereas others predict timescales of more than one million years (ref. 3). One possible approach to determining the age is through chemical changes as cloud contraction occurs, in particular through indirect measurements of the ratio of the two spin isomers (ortho/para) of molecular hydrogen, H2, which decreases monotonically with age. This has been done for the dense cloud core L183, for which the deuterium fractionation of diazenylium (N2H+) was used as a chemical clock to infer that the core has contracted rapidly (on a timescale of less than 700,000 years). Among astronomically observable molecules, the spin isomers of the deuterated trihydrogen cation, ortho-H2D+ and para-H2D+, have the most direct chemical connections to H2 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) and their abundance ratio provides a chemical clock that is sensitive to greater cloud core ages. So far this ratio has not been determined because para-H2D+ is very difficult to observe. The detection of its rotational ground-state line has only now become possible thanks to accurate measurements of its transition frequency in the laboratory, and recent progress in instrumentation technology. Here we report observations of ortho- and para-H2D+ emission and absorption, respectively, from the dense cloud core hosting IRAS 16293-2422 A/B, a group of nascent solar-type stars (with ages of less than 100,000 years). Using the ortho/para ratio in conjunction with chemical models, we find that the dense core has been chemically processed for at least one million years. The apparent discrepancy with the earlier N2H+ work arises because that chemical clock turns off sooner than the H2D+ clock, but both results imply that star-forming dense cores have ages of about one million years, rather than 100,000 years.

doi: 10.1038/nature13924

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技術:クモの感覚系から着想を得た亀裂を利用した超高感度機械センサー

Ultrasensitive mechanical crack-based sensor inspired by the spider sensory system p.222

A mechanical crack-based sensor inspired by the mechanism spiders use to sense minute variations in stress offers ultrahigh sensitivity to pressure and vibration and can easily be mounted on human skin for the purposes of speech recognition and the monitoring of physiological signals.

doi: 10.1038/nature14002

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材料科学:原子1個の厚さの結晶を通るプロトン輸送

Proton transport through one-atom-thick crystals p.227

Measurements show that monolayers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride are unexpectedly highly permeable to thermal protons and that their conductivity rapidly increases with temperature, but that no proton transport is detected for few-layer crystals.

doi: 10.1038/nature14015

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化学物理学:sII型クラスレート・ハイドレートを空にすることによって得た氷XVIの構造と特性

Formation and properties of ice XVI obtained by emptying a type sII clathrate hydrate p.231

Gas hydrates are ice-like solids that have guest species encaged within a crystalline water framework, making the empty hydrate a natural — though long assumed to be inaccessible — point of reference; it is now shown that several days of continuous vacuum pumping removes all guests from neon hydrate, and the physical properties of the empty hydrate have been determined.

doi: 10.1038/nature14014

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気候:最終退氷期における亜酸化窒素の海洋排出と陸域排出の同位体による絞り込み

Isotopic constraints on marine and terrestrial N2O emissions during the last deglaciation p.234

Gas hydrates are ice-like solids that have guest species encaged within a crystalline water framework, making the empty hydrate a natural — though long assumed to be inaccessible — point of reference; it is now shown that several days of continuous vacuum pumping removes all guests from neon hydrate, and the physical properties of the empty hydrate have been determined.

doi: 10.1038/nature13971

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古生物学:エディアカラ紀の動物胚様化石に見られる細胞分化および生殖細胞と体細胞の分離

Cell differentiation and germ–soma separation in Ediacaran animal embryo-like fossils p.238

Spheroidal microfossils from the Ediacaran Doushantuo phosphorites show clear signs of cell differentiation, programmed cell death, and separation between soma and germline, and seem to represent a hitherto unknown experiment in multicellular life like nothing on Earth today.

doi: 10.1038/nature13766

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分子進化学:KRABジンクフィンガー遺伝子ZNF91/93とSVA/L1レトロトランスポゾンの間の進化的軍拡競争

An evolutionary arms race between KRAB zinc-finger genes ZNF91/93 and SVA/L1 retrotransposons p.242

The authors show that two primate-specific genes encoding KRAB domain containing zinc finger proteins, ZNF91 and ZNF93, have evolved during the last 25 million years to repress retrotransposon families that emerged during this time period; according to the new data KZNF gene expansion limits the activity of newly emerged retrotransposons, which subsequently mutate to evade repression.

doi: 10.1038/nature13760

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免疫学:食餌によるマイクロバイオームの変化は自己炎症性疾患に影響する

Dietary modulation of the microbiome affects autoinflammatory disease p.246

Pstpip2-mutant mice fed a high-fat diet are protected against inflammatory bone disease and bone erosion; this protection is associated with reductions in intestinal Prevotella levels and pro-IL-1β expression, and is dependent on the deletion of both caspases 1 and 8.

doi: 10.1038/nature13788

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構造生物学:細菌アミロイド分泌チャネルCsgGの構造と機能に関する考察

Structural and mechanistic insights into the bacterial amyloid secretion channel CsgG p.250

CsgG and CgsE form an encaging translocon for selective, iterative diffusion of curli subunits across the non-energized bacterial outer membrane.

doi: 10.1038/nature13768

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免疫学:胚中心B細胞由来リンパ腫におけるGα13を介したシグナル伝達の欠失

Loss of signalling via Gα13 in germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma p.254

Germinal centre B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (GCB-DLBCL) is a common malignancy, yet the signalling pathways that are deregulated and the factors leading to its systemic dissemination are poorly defined. Work in mice showed that sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-2 (S1PR2), a Gα12 and Gα13 coupled receptor, promotes growth regulation and local confinement of germinal centre B cells. Recent deep sequencing studies of GCB-DLBCL have revealed mutations in many genes in this cancer, including in GNA13 (encoding Gα13) and S1PR2 (refs 5,6, 7). Here we show, using in vitro and in vivo assays, that GCB-DLBCL-associated mutations occurring in S1PR2 frequently disrupt the receptor’s Akt and migration inhibitory functions. Gα13-deficient mouse germinal centre B cells and human GCB-DLBCL cells were unable to suppress pAkt and migration in response to S1P, and Gα13-deficient mice developed germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma. Germinal centre B cells, unlike most lymphocytes, are tightly confined in lymphoid organs and do not recirculate. Remarkably, deficiency in Gα13, but not S1PR2, led to germinal centre B-cell dissemination into lymph and blood. GCB-DLBCL cell lines frequently carried mutations in the Gα13 effector ARHGEF1, and Arhgef1 deficiency also led to germinal centre B-cell dissemination. The incomplete phenocopy of Gα13- and S1PR2 deficiency led us to discover that P2RY8, an orphan receptor that is mutated in GCB-DLBCL and another germinal centre B-cell-derived malignancy, Burkitt’s lymphoma, also represses germinal centre B-cell growth and promotes confinement via Gα13. These findings identify a Gα13-dependent pathway that exerts dual actions in suppressing growth and blocking dissemination of germinal centre B cells that is frequently disrupted in germinal centre B-cell-derived lymphoma.

doi: 10.1038/nature13765

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細胞生物学:MapZは肺炎連鎖球菌で分裂位置を標識してFtsZリングの配置を決める

MapZ marks the division sites and positions FtsZ rings in Streptococcus pneumoniae p.259

A new mechanism is identified for correct placement of the division machinery in Streptococcus pneumoniae that relies on the novel factor MapZ to form ring structures at the cell equator; these structures move apart as the cell elongates, acting as permanent markers of division sites.

doi: 10.1038/nature13966

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細胞:CRISPR/Cas9によるプログラム可能なRNA認識と切断

Programmable RNA recognition and cleavage by CRISPR/Cas9 p.263

In the presence of a short DNA oligonucleotide containing a protospacer adjacent motif, a guide-RNA-programmed Cas9 is able to specifically bind and/or cleave single-stranded RNA—this system can be used to isolate specific endogenous RNA transcripts from a cell lysate without any tag or modification.

doi: 10.1038/nature13769

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分子生物学:CK2によるヒストンH2Aのチロシンリン酸化が転写の伸長を調節する

Tyrosine phosphorylation of histone H2A by CK2 regulates transcriptional elongation p.267

A conserved tyrosine residue, Tyr 57, of histone H2A is phosphorylated by an unsuspected tyrosine kinase activity of casein kinase 2, influencing a series of histone marks associated with active transcription and regulating transcription elongation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13736

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細胞生物学:単一生細胞でのヒストンアセチル化によるRNAポリメラーゼII活性化の調節

Regulation of RNA polymerase II activation by histone acetylation in single living cells p.272

The interplay of histone acetylation and RNA polymerase II activity is investigated using fluorescence microscopy; acetylation of H3 at Lys 27 enhances the recruitment of a transcriptional activator and accelerates the transition of RNA polymerase II from initiation to elongation, thus indicating that histone acetylation has a causal effect on two distinct steps in transcription activation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13714

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