Within reach p.263

A redoubling of efforts should swiftly eradicate polio from its last strongholds.

doi: 10.1038/511263b

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Struggle for independence p.263

The faculty of the Scripps Research Institute is bucking a national trend with its refusal to merge with the University of Southern California.

doi: 10.1038/511263a

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Food for thought p.264

Researchers investigating different farming practices should not have to pick sides.

doi: 10.1038/511264a

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Quantum-hub finalists picked p.271

UK government considers eight proposals for up to six research centres.

doi: 10.1038/511271a

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Landslide risks rise up agenda p.272

Forum on deadly natural phenomena discusses use of simulation and hazard-mapping technologies.

doi: 10.1038/511272a

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Scripps merger fiasco highlights US funding woes p.274

Other independent biomedical research institutions have turned to private benefactors.

doi: 10.1038/511274a

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Charity begins at CERN p.276

Particle-physics lab sets up fund for ‘extras’ as other big institutes mull similar move.

doi: 10.1038/511276a

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News Features


Physics: Wave of the future p.278


doi: 10.1038/511278a

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Weight-loss surgery: A gut-wrenching question p.282


doi: 10.1038/511282a

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News & Views


High-pressure physics: Piling on the pressure p.294

映画『スター・トレック イントゥ・ダークネス』で宇宙船エンタープライズ号のワープコアの代役を務めた、世界最強のレーザーを搭載した装置は、ダイヤモンドを鉛の密度にまで圧縮する。

doi: 10.1038/511294a

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Ecology: Pesticides linked to bird declines p.295


doi: 10.1038/nature13642

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Astrophysics: Survival of the largest p.296


doi: 10.1038/nature13640

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Neurobiology: Keeping a lid on it p.297


doi: 10.1038/nature13641

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Cancer: Sugar-coated cell signalling p.298


doi: 10.1038/nature13506

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Materials science: A superelastic organic crystal p.300


doi: 10.1038/511300a

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Stem cells: Reprogramming finds its niche p.301


doi: 10.1038/nature13516

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A deep crust–mantle boundary in the asteroid 4 Vesta p.303

Data on Vesta’s surface material provided by the Dawn probe and impacts modelling reveals that Vesta’s crust–mantle boundary must be deeper than 80 kilometres below the surface.

doi: 10.1038/nature13499

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Genetics of ecological divergence during speciation p.307

Traits responsible for recent niche divergence between sympatric threespine stickleback species are subjected to forward genetic analysis; additive variation at several loci across the genome accounts for most of the genetic basis of ecological divergence, with a further role for epistatic interactions that disadvantage hybrids.

doi: 10.1038/nature13301

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Reprogramming human endothelial cells to haematopoietic cells requires vascular induction p.312

This study describes the conversion of human fetal and adult vascular endothelial cells into engraftable haematopoietic progenitors by transduction with some transcription factors and then culture on a vascular niche feeder layer; the haematopoietic progenitors may be useful for the generation of engraftable healthy and long-lasting haematopoietic cells for treatment of inherited and acquired blood disorders.

doi: 10.1038/nature13547

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The cancer glycocalyx mechanically primes integrin-mediated growth and survival p.319

Metastatic cancer cells are shown to have a tendency towards forming a bulky glycocalyx owing to the production of large glycoproteins, and this cancer-associated glycocalyx has a mechanical effect on the spatial organization of integrins — by funnelling integrins into adhesions, integrin clustering and signalling is promoted, which leads to enhanced cell survival and proliferation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13535

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宇宙:明るい超新星 2010jl における大きな塵粒子の急速な形成

Rapid formation of large dust grains in the luminous supernova 2010jl p.326

The formation of dust in the dense circumstellar medium of the bright supernova 2010jl is at first rapid and produces very large grains, which resist destruction, whereas later the dust production rate increases, meaning its source is ejecta; this links early and late dust mass evolution in supernovae with dense circumstellar media.

doi: 10.1038/nature13558

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Ramp compression of diamond to five terapascals p.330

New laboratory techniques for applying enormous pressures allow diamond to be compressed to 50 million atmospheres, providing insight into the interiors of planets and theoretical implications.

doi: 10.1038/nature13526

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A low-cost non-toxic post-growth activation step for CdTe solar cells p.334

MgCl2 is shown to be a cheap and non-toxic replacement for the costly and environmentally unfriendly salt CdCl2 that has long been used as the ‘activation’ step in the production of cadmium telluride solar cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature13435

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Pathway from subducting slab to surface for melt and fluids beneath Mount Rainier p.338

Magnetotelluric data from the state of Washington, USA, are used to image the fluid–melt phase of volcanic subduction in Mt Rainier, revealing fluid release at or near the top of the slab, and its migration into the overlying mantle.

doi: 10.1038/nature13493

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Declines in insectivorous birds are associated with high neonicotinoid concentrations p.341

The water concentrations of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid pesticide, correlate with declines in farmland bird populations in the Netherlands.

doi: 10.1038/nature13531

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Genome sequencing identifies major causes of severe intellectual disability p.344

Whole-genome sequencing is used to identify genetic alterations in patients with severe intellectual disability for whom all other tests, including array and exome sequencing, returned negative results; de novo single-nucleotide and copy number variations affecting the coding region seem to be a major cause of this disorder.

doi: 10.1038/nature13394

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Engineering a memory with LTD and LTP p.348

A rodent study using optogenetics to induce long-term potentiation and long-term depression provides a causal link between synaptic plasticity and memory.

doi: 10.1038/nature13294

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ABCB5 is a limbal stem cell gene required for corneal development and repair p.353

The loss of limbal stem cells (LSCs) due to injury or disease is one of the leading causes of blindness; here, the ABCB5 protein is identified as a marker of LSCs in mouse and human eye, and shown to be functionally required for LSC maintenance, corneal development and repair.

doi: 10.1038/nature13426

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WNT7A and PAX6 define corneal epithelium homeostasis and pathogenesis p.358

p63 and PAX6 act to specify limbal stem or progenitor cells (LSCs), and WNT7A controls corneal epithelium differentiation through PAX6; loss of WNT7A or PAX6 induces LSCs into epithelium, and transduction of PAX6 in skin epithelial stem cells converts them to LSC-like cells and transplantation in a rabbit corneal injury model can replenish corneal epithelial cells and repair damaged corneal surface.

doi: 10.1038/nature13465

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がん:BRCA2はRループの蓄積を防いでTREX-2 mRNA核外輸送因子PCID2と相互作用する

BRCA2 prevents R-loop accumulation and associates with TREX-2 mRNA export factor PCID2 p.362

BRCA2, the breast cancer susceptibility gene factor, interacts with TREX-2, a protein complex involved in the biogenesis and export of messenger ribonucleoprotein, to process DNA–RNA hybrid structures called R-loops that can trigger genome instability; these may be a central cause of the stress occurring in early cancer cells that drives oncogenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature13374

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The structural basis of transfer RNA mimicry and conformational plasticity by a viral RNA p.366

RNA molecules can perform multiple functions, which can be driven by different conformational states; here, the crystal structure of the transfer-RNA-like structure of the turnip yellow mosaic virus is solved, providing insight into the structural basis of RNA multifunctionality.

doi: 10.1038/nature13378

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