Knowledge trades p.271

Institutions must carefully evaluate their researchers’ relationships with Wall Street.

doi: 10.1038/493271b

Full Text


Troubling thoughts p.271

A sustained commitment to mental-health treatment for Fukushima evacuees could also help survivors of future disasters.

doi: 10.1038/493271a

Full Text


Natural history p.272

Age-old field methods can tell us more about animal behaviour than can laboratory models.

doi: 10.1038/493272a

Full Text



HIV trial under scrutiny p.279

Critics say that antibody therapy is too expensive for its African target population.

doi: 10.1038/493279a

Full Text


Insider trading sparks concerns p.280

Universities indulge researchers’ ties to finance industry.

doi: 10.1038/493280a

Full Text


Court lifts cloud over embryonic stem cells p.282

But research on induced stem cells may be the real winner.

doi: 10.1038/493282a

Full Text


Quantum dots go on display p.283

Adoption by TV makers could expand the market for light-emitting nanocrystals.

doi: 10.1038/493283a

Full Text


Behaviour genes unearthed p.284

Speedy sequencing underpins genetic analysis of burrowing in wild oldfield mice.

doi: 10.1038/493284a

Full Text


Vaccine switch urged for polio endgame p.285

Inactivated virus vaccine could deliver the final blow.

doi: 10.1038/493285a

Full Text

News Features


Scientific families: Dynasty p.286

Bob Paineの学説とそれを受け継ぐ「アカデミックファミリー」は、生態学をどのように変えてきたのだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/493286a

Full Text


Fukushima: Fallout of fear p.290


doi: 10.1038/493290a

Full Text

News & Views


Evolution: A history of give and take p.308


doi: 10.1038/nature11851

Full Text


Earth science: Plumbing nickel from the core p.309


doi: 10.1038/nature11852

Full Text


Stem cells: Surf the waves of reprogramming p.310


doi: 10.1038/493310b

Full Text


Evolutionary genetics: Genes for home-building p.312


doi: 10.1038/493312a

Full Text


Neuroscience: Memory and the single molecule p.312


doi: 10.1038/nature11850

Full Text


Analytical chemistry: Defects visualized in porous solids p.313


doi: 10.1038/493313a

Full Text


Computational materials science: Trustworthy predictions p.314


doi: 10.1038/nature11767

Full Text



Towards an exact description of electronic wavefunctions in real solids p.365

The properties of all materials arise largely from the quantum mechanics of their constituent electrons under the influence of the electric field of the nuclei. The solution of the underlying many-electron Schrödinger equation is a ‘non-polynomial hard’ problem, owing to the complex interplay of kinetic energy, electron–electron repulsion and the Pauli exclusion principle. The dominant computational method for describing such systems has been density functional theory. Quantum-chemical methods—based on an explicit ansatz for the many-electron wavefunctions and, hence, potentially more accurate—have not been fully explored in the solid state owing to their computational complexity, which ranges from strongly exponential to high-order polynomial in system size. Here we report the application of an exact technique, full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo to a variety of real solids, providing reference many-electron energies that are used to rigorously benchmark the standard hierarchy of quantum-chemical techniques, up to the ‘gold standard’ coupled-cluster ansatz, including single, double and perturbative triple particle–hole excitation operators. We show the errors in cohesive energies predicted by this method to be small, indicating the potential of this computationally polynomial scaling technique to tackle current solid-state problems.

doi: 10.1038/nature11770

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Autism-related deficits via dysregulated eIF4E-dependent translational control p.371

Hyperconnectivity of neuronal circuits due to increased synaptic protein synthesis is thought to cause autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is strongly implicated in ASDs by means of upstream signalling; however, downstream regulatory mechanisms are ill-defined. Here we show that knockout of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 2 (4E-BP2)—an eIF4E repressor downstream of mTOR—or eIF4E overexpression leads to increased translation of neuroligins, which are postsynaptic proteins that are causally linked to ASDs. Mice that have the gene encoding 4E-BP2 (Eif4ebp2) knocked out exhibit an increased ratio of excitatory to inhibitory synaptic inputs and autistic-like behaviours (that is, social interaction deficits, altered communication and repetitive/stereotyped behaviours). Pharmacological inhibition of eIF4E activity or normalization of neuroligin 1, but not neuroligin 2, protein levels restores the normal excitation/inhibition ratio and rectifies the social behaviour deficits. Thus, translational control by eIF4E regulates the synthesis of neuroligins, maintaining the excitation-to-inhibition balance, and its dysregulation engenders ASD-like phenotypes.

doi: 10.1038/nature11628

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF



Pulsed accretion in a variable protostar p.378

The infrared luminosity of a young protostar (about 105 years old) is found to increase by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days; this is attributed to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion.

doi: 10.1038/nature11746

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Planetary system disruption by Galactic perturbations to wide binary stars p.381

Numerical simulations of a widely separated binary star system demonstrate that planetary systems around one star may often be strongly perturbed by the other star, triggering planetary ejections and increasing the orbital eccentricities of surviving planets.

doi: 10.1038/nature11780

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Ultrahard nanotwinned cubic boron nitride p.385

The hardness, toughness and chemical stability of the well-known superhard material cubic boron nitride have been improved by using a synthesis technique based on specially prepared ‘onion-like’ precursor materials.

doi: 10.1038/nature11728

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Multidecadal variability in East African hydroclimate controlled by the Indian Ocean p.389

Proxy indicators of relative moisture balance, in combination with long control simulations from coupled climate models, show that the Indian Ocean drives multidecadal hydroclimate variability by altering the local Walker circulation, whereas the influence of the Pacific Ocean is minimal on these timescales.

doi: 10.1038/nature11785

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Nickel and helium evidence for melt above the core–mantle boundary p.393

Several nickel-rich and helium-rich lava samples from ocean islands and large igneous provinces suggest that mantle plume material formed by core–mantle interaction during the crystallization of a melt-rich layer or basal magma ocean.

doi: 10.1038/nature11771

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Oceanographic controls on the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera p.398

Plate tectonics and climate change are shown to have driven the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera throughout their evolutionary history.

doi: 10.1038/nature11815

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Discrete genetic modules are responsible for complex burrow evolution in Peromyscus mice p.402

The complex burrows created by oldfield mice are shown to be governed by genetic modules that each control an aspect of burrow size or shape.

doi: 10.1038/nature11816

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Mosaic PPM1D mutations are associated with predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer p.406

Rare truncating mutations in the p53-inducible protein phosphatase PPM1D are shown to be associated with predisposition to breast cancer and ovarian cancer; notably, all of the mutations are mosaic in white blood cells but are not present in tumours, and probably have a gain-of-function effect.

doi: 10.1038/nature11725

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Exaggerated translation causes synaptic and behavioural aberrations associated with autism p.411

Mice overexpressing eIF4E show autism-related behaviours and altered synaptic activity in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum, and these phenotypes can be rescued with the cap-dependent translation inhibitor 4EGI-1.

doi: 10.1038/nature11782

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Prkcz null mice show normal learning and memory p.416

Genetically removing PKM-ζ in mice has no effect on memory, and despite absence of this kinase, the original peptide inhibitor of PKM-ζ still disrupts memory in these mutant mice; these data re-open the exploration for key molecules regulating maintenance of long-term plasticity processes.

doi: 10.1038/nature11803

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


PKM-ζ is not required for hippocampal synaptic plasticity, learning and memory p.420

It was proposed that protein kinase M-ζ (PKM-ζ) is a key factor in long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory maintenance on the basis of the disruption of LTP and memory by inhibitors of PKM-ζ; however, here mice that do not express PKM-ζ are shown to have normal LTP and memory, thus casting doubts on a critical role for PKM-ζ in these processes.

doi: 10.1038/nature11802

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Asymmetric neurotransmitter release enables rapid odour lateralization in Drosophila p.424

When an odour activates a fly′s antennae asymmetrically, more neurotransmitter is released from olfactory receptor neuron axon branches ipsilateral to the antenna than from contralateral branches. This causes ipsilateral central olfactory neurons to begin spiking earlier and at a higher rate than contralateral neurons, thereby enabling a walking fly to turn towards the odour.

doi: 10.1038/nature11747

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Bacteriophage genes that inactivate the CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system p.429

Five classes of phage genes are identified that protect phages from CRISPR-mediated bacterial immunity.

doi: 10.1038/nature11723

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Mammalian heart renewal by pre-existing cardiomyocytes p.433

During normal ageing a low rate of division of pre-existing cardiomyocytes, rather than progenitor cells, is responsible for cardiomyocyte genesis; this process is increased fourfold during myocardial infarction.

doi: 10.1038/nature11682

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Structure and function of the initially transcribing RNA polymerase II–TFIIB complex p.437

Crystal structures of the Pol II–TFIIB complex in free form and bound by the DNA template and a short RNA product are reported; the latter complex represents an initially transcribing complex, a critical transient state in the pathway from transcription initiation to elongation.

doi: 10.1038/nature11715

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

「Journal home」に戻る