Volume 521 Number 7550



Splice of life p.5

Researchers, bioethicists and regulators must contribute to transparent disscussions on the risks and ethics of editing human embryos.

doi: 10.1038/521005a


Dirty money p.6

The fossil-fuel divestment campaign raises important questions but offers few solutions.

doi: 10.1038/521006a


Greek cash grab p.6

Government’s decision to plunder university funds shows lack of respect for science.

doi: 10.1038/521006b



Japanese academics spooked by military science incursions p.13

Relationship between traditionally pacifist research community and military is changing.

doi: 10.1038/521013a


Pluto-bound craft hunts for hazardous moons p.14

Unknown satellites pose danger to New Horizons mission as it journeys to the edge of the Solar System.

doi: 10.1038/521014a


Pint-sized DNA sequencer impresses first users p.15

Portable device offers on-the-spot data to fight disease, catalogue species and more.

doi: 10.1038/521015a


Fossil-fuel divestment campaign hits resistance p.16

Academics suggest other ways to cut carbon emissions on campus and beyond.

doi: 10.1038/521016a


Mysterious galactic signal points LHC to dark matter p.17

High-energy particles at centre of Milky Way now within scope of Large Hadron Collider.

doi: 10.1038/521017a


Mammoth genomes provide recipe for creating Arctic elephants p.18

Catalogue of genetic differences between woolly mammoths and elephants reveals how ice-age giants braved the cold.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17462

News Features


The retirement debate: Stay at the bench, or make way for the next generation p.20


doi: 10.1038/521020a


Research: Africa’s fight for equality p.24


doi: 10.1038/521024a

News & Views


Evolution: Beauty varies with the light p.34


doi: 10.1038/521034a


Cancer: Antibodies regulate antitumour immunity p.35


doi: 10.1038/nature14388


Computer science: Nanoscale connections for brain-like circuits p.37


doi: 10.1038/521037a


Ecology: Tasteless pesticides affect bees in the field p.38


doi: 10.1038/nature14391


Palaeontology: Dinosaur up in the air p.40


doi: 10.1038/nature14392


Materials chemistry: Organic polymers form fuel from water p.41


doi: 10.1038/521041a



Sequential cancer mutations in cultured human intestinal stem cells p.43

Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, up to four frequently occurring colorectal cancer mutations were introduced alone or in combination into stem cell organoids derived from human small intestinal or colon tissue, allowing an in-depth investigation of the contribution of these mutations to cancer progression.

doi: 10.1038/nature14415


Structural basis for Na+ transport mechanism by a light-driven Na+ pump p.48

doi: 10.1038/nature14322



An extremely young massive clump forming by gravitational collapse in a primordial galaxy p.54

An extremely young star-forming region caught at gravitational collapse in a distant galaxy is shedding new light on the processes driving galaxy growth in the early Universe.

doi: 10.1038/nature14409


Curtain eruptions from Enceladus’ south-polar terrain p.57

Observations of the south pole of the Saturnian moon Enceladus revealed large rifts in the terrain that were found to be the sources of the observed jets of water vapour; now it is shown that much of the eruptive activity can be explained by broad, curtain-like eruptions, many of which were probably misinterpreted previously as discrete jets.

doi: 10.1038/nature14368


Training and operation of an integrated neuromorphic network based on metal-oxide memristors p.61

A transistor-free metal-oxide memristor crossbar with low device variability is realised and trained to perform a simple classification task, opening the way to integrated neuromorphic networks of a complexity comparable to that of the human brain, with high operational speed and manageable power dissipation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14441


The formation and fate of internal waves in the South China Sea p.65

Internal oceanic waves are subsurface gravity waves that can be enormous and travel thousands of kilometres before breaking but they are difficult to study; here observations of such waves in the South China Sea reveal their formation mechanism, extreme turbulence, relationship to the Kuroshio Current and energy budget.

doi: 10.1038/nature14399


A bizarre Jurassic maniraptoran theropod with preserved evidence of membranous wings p.70

A recently discovered fossil belonging to the Scansoriopterygidae, a group of bizarre dinosaurs closely related to birds, represents a new scansoriopterygid species and preserves evidence of a membranous aerodynamic surface very different from a classic avian wing.

doi: 10.1038/nature14423


Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides p.74

It has been suggested that the negative effects on bees of neonicotinoid pesticides could be averted in field conditions if they chose not to forage on treated nectar; here field-level neonicotinoid doses are used in laboratory experiments to show that honeybees and bumblebees do not avoid neonicotinoid-treated food and instead actually prefer it.

doi: 10.1038/nature14414


Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees p.77

Neonicotinoid seed coating is associated with reduced density of wild bees, as well as reduced nesting of solitary bees and reduced colony growth and reproduction of bumblebees, but appears not to affect honeybees.

doi: 10.1038/nature14420


Differential DNA mismatch repair underlies mutation rate variation across the human genome p.81

An analysis of how regional mutation rates vary across 652 tumours identifies variable DNA mismatch repair as the basis of the characteristic regional variation in mutation rates seen across the human genome; the results show that differential DNA repair, rather than differential mutation supply, is likely to be the primary cause of this variation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14173


A direct GABAergic output from the basal ganglia to frontal cortex p.85

Anatomical and functional analyses reveal the existence of two types of globus pallidus externus neurons that directly control cortex, suggesting a pathway by which dopaminergic drugs used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders may act in the basal ganglia to modulate cortex.

doi: 10.1038/nature14179


Vertically transmitted faecal IgA levels determine extra-chromosomal phenotypic variation p.90

Microbially driven dichotomous faecal immunoglobulin-A levels in wild-type mice within the same facility mimic the effects of chromosomal mutations, indicating that phenotypic comparisons between mice must take into account the non-chromosomal hereditary variation between different breeders.

doi: 10.1038/nature14139


Immunosuppressive plasma cells impede T-cell-dependent immunogenic chemotherapy p.94

IgA plasmocytes are shown to promote resistance to the immunogenic chemotherapeutic oxaliplatin in prostate cancer mouse models by inhibiting activation of cytotoxic T cells; immunosuppressive plasma cells, which are also found in human-therapy-resistant prostate cancer, are generated in response to TGFβ, and their functionality depends on PD-L1 expression and IL-10 secretion.

doi: 10.1038/nature14395


Allogeneic IgG combined with dendritic cell stimuli induce antitumour T-cell immunity p.99

Naturally occurring tumour-binding IgG antibodies are shown to initiate the rejection of allogeneic tumours, whereby Fc-receptor-mediated uptake of tumour immune complexes into dendritic cells activates tumour-reactive T cells, and intra-tumoral injection of allogeneic IgG together with dendritic cell adjuvants induces systemic T-cell-mediated antitumour responses.

doi: 10.1038/nature14424


X-domain of peptide synthetases recruits oxygenases crucial for glycopeptide biosynthesis p.105

Glycopeptide antibiotics are biosynthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, which contain a previously uncharacterized ‘X-domain’ now shown to recruit three cytochrome P450 oxygenases that are necessary for the antibiotics to achieve their final, active conformation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14141

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