目次

Editorials

ヒト胚のゲノム編集のリスクや倫理問題については、開かれた率直な議論が必要だ。

Splice of life p.5

Researchers, bioethicists and regulators must contribute to transparent disscussions on the risks and ethics of editing human embryos.

doi: 10.1038/521005a

財政難に苦しむ大学からさらに資金を奪うギリシャ政府の決定は、科学への敬意を欠く行為だ。

Greek cash grab p.6

Government’s decision to plunder university funds shows lack of respect for science.

doi: 10.1038/521006b

化石燃料に対する投資撤収を求める運動は、望んだ結果を生まないかもしれない。

Dirty money p.6

The fossil-fuel divestment campaign raises important questions but offers few solutions.

doi: 10.1038/521006a

News

平和主義的な日本の学界に、科学研究が軍事色を帯びることへの警戒感が。

Japanese academics spooked by military science incursions p.13

Relationship between traditionally pacifist research community and military is changing.

doi: 10.1038/521013a

NASAの冥王星探査機「ニュー・ホライズンズ」の探索対象は、未知の小衛星や塵が中心に。

Pluto-bound craft hunts for hazardous moons p.14

Unknown satellites pose danger to New Horizons mission as it journeys to the edge of the Solar System.

doi: 10.1038/521014a

昨年登場した持ち運び可能な小型DNAシーケンサーが好評で、さらなる改良に期待が。

Pint-sized DNA sequencer impresses first users p.15

Portable device offers on-the-spot data to fight disease, catalogue species and more.

doi: 10.1038/521015a

化石燃料に対する投資を撤収する運動をめぐって、アカデミアが真っ二つに。

Fossil-fuel divestment campaign hits resistance p.16

Academics suggest other ways to cut carbon emissions on campus and beyond.

doi: 10.1038/521016a

銀河系中心で見つかった謎の高エネルギー粒子が、LHC(大型ハドロン衝突型加速器)再稼働時の探索対象となる可能性が。

Mysterious galactic signal points LHC to dark matter p.17

High-energy particles at centre of Milky Way now within scope of Large Hadron Collider.

doi: 10.1038/521017a

ケナガマンモスとアジアゾウのゲノムの比較解析から、マンモスの耐寒性獲得についての遺伝的な手掛かりが。

Mammoth genomes provide recipe for creating Arctic elephants p.18

Catalogue of genetic differences between woolly mammoths and elephants reveals how ice-age giants braved the cold.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17462

News Features

引退の再定義:堂々たる退場

The retirement debate: Stay at the bench, or make way for the next generation p.20

次の世代に道を譲り、研究室に別れを告げた5人の研究者を紹介する。

doi: 10.1038/521020a

研究:平等を求めるアフリカの闘い

Research: Africa’s fight for equality p.24

国際研究協力において長年不平等な立場に立たされてきたアフリカの科学者たちが、改善を求めている。

doi: 10.1038/521024a

News & Views

進化:美は光とともに変化する

Evolution: Beauty varies with the light p.34

グッピーを使った実験で、雌に選ばれた雄が持つ色彩シグナルの組み合わせは多様だが、雌がどれを選ぶかは、微小生息地における入射光の差異によって決まる。このことは雄の色彩のばらつきが進化の過程で維持されてきたことの説明となる。

doi: 10.1038/521034a

がん:抗体は抗腫瘍免疫を調節する

Cancer: Antibodies regulate antitumour immunity p.35

抗がん免疫応答に関わるT細胞を増やしてやるのは、がんの治療目標の1つである。だが、T細胞は単独で機能するわけではない。B細胞やB細胞が作り出す抗原がT細胞応答を引き起こし、また抑制しているのである。

doi: 10.1038/nature14388

コンピューター科学:脳に似た回路で使われたナノスケールの接続

Computer science: Nanoscale connections for brain-like circuits p.37

メモリスターと呼ばれる微小な回路素子を接続に使って人工神経ネットワークが作られた。この系は、不完全な画像からアルファベットの文字を識別するように学習することができる。

doi: 10.1038/521037a

生態学:無味の殺虫剤は野生のハチに影響を及ぼす

Ecology: Tasteless pesticides affect bees in the field p.38

ハチはネオニコチノイド系の殺虫剤の味を感じたり、避けたりすることができないことが2つの研究によって証拠立てられた。また、この殺虫剤が使われた作物に曝露されると、マルハナバチでのコロニー拡大と生殖力だけでなく、単独性ハナバチの生殖力にも影響が及ぶことも分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14391

古生物学:空を飛ぶ恐竜

Palaeontology: Dinosaur up in the air p.40

中国で新たに見つかった羽毛のある恐竜の化石は、謎に包まれた風変わりな小型肉食恐竜に属し、飛行に使われた可能性のある骨構造を手首に持っていたようだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature14392

材料化学:水から燃料を作り出す有機ポリマー

Materials chemistry: Organic polymers form fuel from water p.41

光で活性化されて水を分解し、炭素を含まず、化石燃料の代替となる水素を生成させる触媒群に、多孔性ポリマーが新たに加わった。このポリマーの性質は調整が容易なので、実際に使える触媒の開発にとって大きなプラスとなる。

doi: 10.1038/521041a

Articles

がんゲノミクス:培養ヒト腸幹細胞における連続的がん変異

Sequential cancer mutations in cultured human intestinal stem cells p.43

Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, up to four frequently occurring colorectal cancer mutations were introduced alone or in combination into stem cell organoids derived from human small intestinal or colon tissue, allowing an in-depth investigation of the contribution of these mutations to cancer progression.

doi: 10.1038/nature14415

構造生物学:光駆動Na+ポンプのNa+輸送機構の構造基盤

Structural basis for Na+ transport mechanism by a light-driven Na+ pump p.48

doi: 10.1038/nature14322

Letters

天文学:原始銀河で重力崩壊によって形成される極めて若い大質量のクランプ

An extremely young massive clump forming by gravitational collapse in a primordial galaxy p.54

An extremely young star-forming region caught at gravitational collapse in a distant galaxy is shedding new light on the processes driving galaxy growth in the early Universe.

doi: 10.1038/nature14409

惑星科学:エンセラダスの南極域で生じたカーテン状の噴出

Curtain eruptions from Enceladus’ south-polar terrain p.57

Observations of the south pole of the Saturnian moon Enceladus revealed large rifts in the terrain that were found to be the sources of the observed jets of water vapour; now it is shown that much of the eruptive activity can be explained by broad, curtain-like eruptions, many of which were probably misinterpreted previously as discrete jets.

doi: 10.1038/nature14368

電子工学:金属酸化膜メモリスターに基づく集積神経形態学的ネットワークの訓練と動作

Training and operation of an integrated neuromorphic network based on metal-oxide memristors p.61

A transistor-free metal-oxide memristor crossbar with low device variability is realised and trained to perform a simple classification task, opening the way to integrated neuromorphic networks of a complexity comparable to that of the human brain, with high operational speed and manageable power dissipation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14441

海洋学:南シナ海における内部波の形成と消滅

The formation and fate of internal waves in the South China Sea p.65

Internal oceanic waves are subsurface gravity waves that can be enormous and travel thousands of kilometres before breaking but they are difficult to study; here observations of such waves in the South China Sea reveal their formation mechanism, extreme turbulence, relationship to the Kuroshio Current and energy budget.

doi: 10.1038/nature14399

古生物学:皮膜状の翼の証拠が保存されているジュラ紀の風変わりなマニラプトル類獣脚類

A bizarre Jurassic maniraptoran theropod with preserved evidence of membranous wings p.70

A recently discovered fossil belonging to the Scansoriopterygidae, a group of bizarre dinosaurs closely related to birds, represents a new scansoriopterygid species and preserves evidence of a membranous aerodynamic surface very different from a classic avian wing.

doi: 10.1038/nature14423

農業生態学:ハナバチはネオニコチノイド系農薬を含む食物を好む

Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides p.74

It has been suggested that the negative effects on bees of neonicotinoid pesticides could be averted in field conditions if they chose not to forage on treated nectar; here field-level neonicotinoid doses are used in laboratory experiments to show that honeybees and bumblebees do not avoid neonicotinoid-treated food and instead actually prefer it.

doi: 10.1038/nature14414

農業生態学:ネオニコチノイド系殺虫剤の1種は種子粉衣で野生ハナバチに負の影響を与える

Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees p.77

Neonicotinoid seed coating is associated with reduced density of wild bees, as well as reduced nesting of solitary bees and reduced colony growth and reproduction of bumblebees, but appears not to affect honeybees.

doi: 10.1038/nature14420

がん:ヒトゲノム全域での変異率の変動の基盤となるDNAミスマッチ修復の差異

Differential DNA mismatch repair underlies mutation rate variation across the human genome p.81

An analysis of how regional mutation rates vary across 652 tumours identifies variable DNA mismatch repair as the basis of the characteristic regional variation in mutation rates seen across the human genome; the results show that differential DNA repair, rather than differential mutation supply, is likely to be the primary cause of this variation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14173

神経科学:大脳基底核から前頭野への直接的なGABA作動性出力

A direct GABAergic output from the basal ganglia to frontal cortex p.85

Anatomical and functional analyses reveal the existence of two types of globus pallidus externus neurons that directly control cortex, suggesting a pathway by which dopaminergic drugs used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders may act in the basal ganglia to modulate cortex.

doi: 10.1038/nature14179

微生物学:垂直伝播された糞便IgAレベルが染色体外表現型の変動を規定する

Vertically transmitted faecal IgA levels determine extra-chromosomal phenotypic variation p.90

Microbially driven dichotomous faecal immunoglobulin-A levels in wild-type mice within the same facility mimic the effects of chromosomal mutations, indicating that phenotypic comparisons between mice must take into account the non-chromosomal hereditary variation between different breeders.

doi: 10.1038/nature14139

免疫学:免疫抑制性形質細胞は免疫促進的でT細胞に依存する化学療法を妨げる

Immunosuppressive plasma cells impede T-cell-dependent immunogenic chemotherapy p.94

IgA plasmocytes are shown to promote resistance to the immunogenic chemotherapeutic oxaliplatin in prostate cancer mouse models by inhibiting activation of cytotoxic T cells; immunosuppressive plasma cells, which are also found in human-therapy-resistant prostate cancer, are generated in response to TGFβ, and their functionality depends on PD-L1 expression and IL-10 secretion.

doi: 10.1038/nature14395

免疫学:同種異系IgGと樹状細胞刺激の併用は抗腫瘍T細胞免疫を誘導する

Allogeneic IgG combined with dendritic cell stimuli induce antitumour T-cell immunity p.99

Naturally occurring tumour-binding IgG antibodies are shown to initiate the rejection of allogeneic tumours, whereby Fc-receptor-mediated uptake of tumour immune complexes into dendritic cells activates tumour-reactive T cells, and intra-tumoral injection of allogeneic IgG together with dendritic cell adjuvants induces systemic T-cell-mediated antitumour responses.

doi: 10.1038/nature14424

生化学:ペプチドシンテターゼのXドメインは糖ペプチド生合成に不可欠なオキシゲナーゼを誘導する

X-domain of peptide synthetases recruits oxygenases crucial for glycopeptide biosynthesis p.105

Glycopeptide antibiotics are biosynthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, which contain a previously uncharacterized ‘X-domain’ now shown to recruit three cytochrome P450 oxygenases that are necessary for the antibiotics to achieve their final, active conformation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14141

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