目次

Editorials

米オバマ大統領は気候変動対策に懸命に取り組んでいるが、少数の共和党議員が地球温暖化は人為的だと認めただけでは、とても「環境の勝利」とは言えない。

Senate vs science p.527

A few Republicans agreeing with basic climate research is not an environmental victory.

doi: 10.1038/517527b

Full Text

イスラエル北部で発見された古代の部分頭蓋骨は、ヒトの進化が非常に複雑な道筋をたどったことを示している。

Human history defies easy stories p.527

The discovery of part of a 55,000-year-old human skull in Israel will help to answer some questions about our species' evolution — but it shows that the tale is complicated.

doi: 10.1038/517527a

Full Text

研究補助職の貢献は過小評価されがちだが、優れた科学研究は、それなくしては成り立たない。

Technical support p.528

Technicians are often under appreciated, but without them there could be no research.

doi: 10.1038/517528a

Full Text

News

米オバマ政権が、議会に頼らず気候変動対策に取り組む、強い姿勢を。

Obama acts alone on climate p.535

US president defies hostile Congress and takes action on global warming.

doi: 10.1038/517535a

Full Text

欧州宇宙機関(ESA)のロゼッタ彗星探査計画が、行方不明の着陸機フィラエの捜索をめぐり、ジレンマに。

Hunt for Philae hangs in the balance p.536

Rosetta mission would have to sacrifice other science to search for comet lander.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.16775

Full Text

「無意識の思考」は「熟考」より賢いという人気の説に、大規模な実験とメタ解析による反論が。

Unconscious thought not so smart after all p.537

Study on decision-making stokes controversy over power of distracted mind.

doi: 10.1038/517537a

Full Text

米学術研究会議(NRC)が、海洋科学研究の流れを変えるよう提言を。

US ocean sciences told to steer a new course p.538

Major report calls for cuts to infrastructure, including fledgling Ocean Observatories Initiative, to increase spending on science.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.16780

Full Text

米政府が、より正確な個別化医療(precision medicine)を重点的に推進する方針を。

US precision-medicine proposal sparks questions p.540

Announcement by President Obama comes amidst growing interest in targeted therapies.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.16774

Full Text

5万5000年前のヒト頭蓋骨が中東で発見されたことで、この地域でネアンデルタール人とヒトが共存していたことが明らかに。

Neanderthals gain human neighbour p.541

Cranium discovery shows that Homo sapiens was living in Middle East 55,000 years ago.

doi: 10.1038/517541a

Full Text

News Features

研究補助職:一風変わったテクニシャン

Not your average technician p.542

科学研究は多くの「縁の下の力持ち」に支えられているが、中には、特殊な仕事で貢献する人たちもいる。

doi: 10.1038/517542a

Full Text

News & Views

幹細胞:肺修復のための緊急用バックアップ

Stem cells: Emergency back-up for lung repair p.556

インフルエンザウイルスは肺の内表面を覆っている上皮組織に重大な損傷を与える。マウスではバックアップ用の幹細胞集団の活性化が、損傷を受けた肺の効果的な修復につながることが、今回明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/517556a

Full Text

宇宙物理学:星の年齢を知る時計

Astrophysics: Stellar clocks p.557

太陽類似星では回転とその年齢の間に関連が見られることはずっと以前から知られているが、より古い星については厳密な検証が行われていなかった。古い星団の1つについて、ケプラー宇宙望遠鏡によって得られた観測結果を使って検証が行われ、こうした空白部分が埋められた。

doi: 10.1038/517557a

Full Text

植物科学:木材増産に通じる道

Plant biology: Seeing the wood and the trees p.558

木材の主要な構成成分である木部の形成を制御している遺伝子調節ネットワークが明らかにされ、植物バイオマスの操作に通じる新しい道が開かれた。

doi: 10.1038/nature14085

Full Text

精密測定:分割した電子を使って検証された相対性理論

Precision measurement: Relativity tested with a split electron p.559

電子波束の分割と再結合を使って、相対性理論が記録的な感度で検証された。この結果は量子情報技術の手法による相対性理論の精密測定の時代の先触れとなるものだ。

doi: 10.1038/517559a

Full Text

ゲノミクス:CRISPRを使って遺伝子を発現させる

Genomics: CRISPR engineering turns on genes p.560

CRISPRとして知られている細菌の防御系を転用してヒト細胞での遺伝子発現の強力な活性化因子とする方法は、遺伝子機能研究の強力な手段となる。その一例ががん細胞で示された。

doi: 10.1038/517560a

Full Text

地球科学:自然に起こる気候変動と強制された気候変動

Earth science: Free and forced climate variations p.562

シミュレーションとデータを併用して、短期間の気候変動傾向は自然に生じる内部変動に主に支配されることが明らかになった。これは気候予測の基盤となるが、強制されて起こる変動に対する感度の評価についての基盤とはならない。

doi: 10.1038/517562a

Full Text

がん:リスク因子とランダムに起こる変異

Cancer: Risk factors and random chances p.563

ある組織中の幹細胞について推定される分裂回数ががんの発生率と相関することが分かった。この知見は、さまざまな組織中でがんが発生する確率が異なるのは、主としてランダムな変異に依存していることを示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/517563a

Full Text

Articles

気候科学:全球気温の変化傾向における強制力、フィードバックおよび内部変動

Forcing, feedback and internal variability in global temperature trends p.565

A study of the effect of radiative forcing, climate feedback and ocean heat uptake on global-mean surface temperature indicates that overestimation of the response of climate models to radiative forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations is not responsible for the post-1998 discrepancy between model simulations and observations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14117

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

植物科学:シロイヌナズナの二次細胞壁合成に働く遺伝子調節ネットワーク

An Arabidopsis gene regulatory network for secondary cell wall synthesis p.571

The full complement of transcriptional regulators that affect synthesis of the plant secondary cell wall remains largely undetermined; here, the network of protein–DNA interactions controlling secondary cell wall synthesis of Arabidopsis thaliana is determined, showing that gene expression is regulated by a series of feed-forward loops to ensure that the secondary cell wall is deposited at the right time and in the right place.

doi: 10.1038/nature14099

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

がん:頭頸部扁平上皮がんの包括的ゲノム特性

Comprehensive genomic characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas OPEN p.576

The Cancer Genome Atlas presents an integrative genome-wide analysis of genetic alterations in 279 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), which are classified by human papillomavirus (HPV) status; alterations in EGFR, FGFR, PIK3CA and cyclin-dependent kinases are shown to represent candidate targets for therapeutic intervention in most HNSCCs.

doi: 10.1038/nature14129

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

分子生物学:改変したCRISPR-Cas9複合体によるゲノム規模の転写活性化

Genome-scale transcriptional activation by an engineered CRISPR-Cas9 complex p.583

The CRISPR-Cas9 system, a powerful tool for genome editing, has been engineered to activate endogenous gene transcription specifically and potently on a genome-wide scale and applied to a large-scale gain-of-function screen for studying melanoma drug resistance.

doi: 10.1038/nature14136

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

Letters

天文学:25億歳の星団観測から得られた低温星に対するスピンダウン時計

A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster p.589

The measurement of the rotational periods of 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819 allows the calibration of gyrochronology — the determination of a star’s age on the basis of its rotation period — over a much broader age range than hitherto, meaning that it might be possible to determine the ages of many cool stars in the Galactic field with a precision of roughly 10 per cent.

doi: 10.1038/nature14118

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

量子物理学:捕獲したイオンを使ってローレンツ対称性を検証する、電子に対するマイケルソン–モーリー実験に類似した実験

Michelson–Morley analogue for electrons using trapped ions to test Lorentz symmetry p.592

An electronic analogue of a Michelson–Morley experiment, in which an electron wave packet bound inside a calcium ion is split into two parts and subsequently recombined, demonstrates that the relative change in orientation of the two parts that results from the Earth’s rotation reveals no anisotropy in the electron dispersion; this verification of Lorentz symmetry improves on the precision of previous tests by a factor of 100.

doi: 10.1038/nature14091

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

材料科学:「ハリネズミ」型粒子の異常分散

Anomalous dispersions of ‘hedgehog’ particles p.596

Micrometre-sized particles covered with stiff, nanoscale spikes are shown to exhibit long-term colloidal stability in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic media, without the need for chemical coating, owing to the effect of the spikes on the contact area and, consequently, the force between the particles.

doi: 10.1038/nature14092

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

化学:後期段階の官能基化に適した第3級C–H結合の金属触媒アジド化

Metal-catalysed azidation of tertiary C–H bonds suitable for late-stage functionalization p.600

Most currently used catalysts for the amination of C–H bonds are ill suited to the functionalization of complex molecules; here it is shown that a mild, selective, iron-catalysed azidation of tertiary C–H bonds is suitable for the amination of complex molecules containing a range of functional groups.

doi: 10.1038/nature14127

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

地球科学:地球の核の条件における鉄の輸送特性に対する電子相関の効果

Effects of electron correlations on transport properties of iron at Earth’s core conditions p.605

Based on first-principles resistivity calculations, it was recently concluded that the thermal conductivity of iron in Earth’s core was too high to sustain thermal convection, thus invalidating such geodynamo models; new calculations including electron correlations find that electron–electron scattering is comparable to the electron–phonon scattering at high temperatures in iron, doubling the expected resistivity, and reviving conventional geodynamo models.

doi: 10.1038/nature14090

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

ゲノミクス:単一分子塩基配列解読法を用いてヒトゲノムの複雑性を解明する

Resolving the complexity of the human genome using single-molecule sequencing p.608

Single-molecule, real-time DNA sequencing is used to analyse a haploid human genome (CHM1), thus closing or extending more than half of the remaining 164 euchromatic gaps in the human genome; the complete sequences of euchromatic structural variants (including inversions, complex insertions and tandem repeats) are resolved at the base-pair level, suggesting that a greater complexity of the human genome can now be accessed.

doi: 10.1038/nature13907

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

医学:宿主の血管新生シグナル伝達の妨害はマイコバクテリアの増殖を制限する

Interception of host angiogenic signalling limits mycobacterial growth p.612

Using a model of tuberculosis in zebrafish, granuloma formation is shown to coincide with hypoxia and angiogenesis; furthermore, the pharmacological inhibition of the pro-angiogenic VEGF pathway reduces infection burden, suggesting a possible treatment strategy in patients with the disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature13967

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

幹細胞:肺の再生にはp63+Krt5+の末梢気道幹細胞が不可欠である

p63+Krt5+ distal airway stem cells are essential for lung regeneration p.616

Lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis involve the progressive and inexorable destruction of oxygen exchange surfaces and airways, and have emerged as a leading cause of death worldwide. Mitigating therapies, aside from impractical organ transplantation, remain limited and the possibility of regenerative medicine has lacked empirical support. However, it is clinically known that patients who survive sudden, massive loss of lung tissue from necrotizing pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome often recover full pulmonary function within six months. Correspondingly, we recently demonstrated lung regeneration in mice following H1N1 influenza virus infection, and linked distal airway stem cells expressing Trp63 (p63) and keratin 5, called DASCp63/Krt5, to this process. Here we show that pre-existing, intrinsically committed DASCp63/Krt5 undergo a proliferative expansion in response to influenza-induced lung damage, and assemble into nascent alveoli at sites of interstitial lung inflammation. We also show that the selective ablation of DASCp63/Krt5 in vivo prevents this regeneration, leading to pre-fibrotic lesions and deficient oxygen exchange. Finally, we demonstrate that single DASCp63/Krt5-derived pedigrees differentiate to type I and type II pneumocytes as well as bronchiolar secretory cells following transplantation to infected lung and also minimize the structural consequences of endogenous stem cell loss on this process. The ability to propagate these cells in culture while maintaining their intrinsic lineage commitment suggests their potential in stem cell-based therapies for acute and chronic lung diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature13903

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

幹細胞:大規模損傷後に細胞系譜マーカー陰性の前駆細胞が動員されて肺上皮を再生する

Lineage-negative progenitors mobilize to regenerate lung epithelium after major injury p.621

Lineage-tracing experiments identify a rare, undifferentiated population of quiescent cells in the mouse distal lung that are activated through a Notch signalling pathway to repair the epithelium after bleomycin- or influenza-mediated injury; inappropriate Notch signalling may be a major contributor to failed regeneration within the lungs of patients with chronic lung disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature14112

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

がん:IAPPによる代謝の再プログラミングはin vivop53欠失腫瘍の退縮を引き起こす

IAPP-driven metabolic reprogramming induces regression of p53-deficient tumours in vivo p.626

p53 is often mutated or lost in cancer; here inactivation of ΔNp63 and ΔNp73 in the absence of p53 is shown to result in metabolic reprogramming and tumour regression via activation of IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide or amylin), and IAPP-based anti-diabetes therapeutic strategies show potential for the treatment of p53-deficient and mutant tumours.

doi: 10.1038/nature13910

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

細胞生物学:有糸分裂チェックポイント複合体は2分子目のCDC20に結合して活性なAPC/Cを阻害する

The mitotic checkpoint complex binds a second CDC20 to inhibit active APC/C p.631

By binding and inhibiting a second CDC20 molecule, the mitotic checkpoint complex can convert a local ‘wait’ signal from unattached kinetochores to inhibit the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome throughout the cell and avoid premature cell division.

doi: 10.1038/nature13911

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

生化学:酸化ヌクレオチドで見られるポリメラーゼ誘導性の細胞傷害性の解明

Uncovering the polymerase-induced cytotoxicity of an oxidized nucleotide p.635

Time--β bound to substrate DNA as it inserts 8-oxo-dGTP opposite either cytosine or adenine.

doi: 10.1038/nature13886

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

構造生物学:DNMT3Aの自己阻害と、ヒストンH3の誘導による活性化に関する構造的考察

Structural insight into autoinhibition and histone H3-induced activation of DNMT3A p.640

A working model for histone H3-induced dynamic regulation of the de novo DNA methyltransferase.

doi: 10.1038/nature13899

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

「Journal home」に戻る

プライバシーマーク制度