Tribal gathering p.133

Success in synthetic biology will depend on better collaboration.

doi: 10.1038/509133a

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A cosmic history p.134

Millions of hours of processing time yield the best picture so far of how the Universe evolved.

doi: 10.1038/509134a

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遺伝子操作や薬物添加によって細胞の走化性を高め、その能力を競うアメーバ競争(Dicty World Race)は、科学への好奇心をかき立てる楽しい試みだ。

The game is on p.134

Amoeba races demonstrate a fun way to promote interest in science.

doi: 10.1038/509134b

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Antibiotic resistance sweeping developing world p.141

Bacteria are increasingly dodging extermination as drug availability outpaces regulation.

doi: 10.1038/509141a

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Avalanche hotspot revealed p.142

Study of disaster-prone Russian islands underscores perils of colonizing unfamiliar terrains.

doi: 10.1038/509142a

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Indian elections fall flat on science p.145

Researchers concerned about country’s competitiveness as most party manifestos neglect innovation.

doi: 10.1038/509145a

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Universities seek to boost industry partnerships p.146

As drug companies shift focus, academia ramps up its role in bringing discoveries to market.

doi: 10.1038/509146a

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News Features


Imaging: Cancer caught in the act p.148


doi: 10.1038/509148a

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Synthetic biology: Beyond divisions p.151


doi: 10.1038/509151a

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Synthetic biology: Cultural divide p.152


doi: 10.1038/509152a

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News & Views


Synthetic biology: Engineering explored p.166


doi: 10.1038/509166a

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Climate science: The origin of regional Arctic warming p.167


doi: 10.1038/509167a

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Synthetic biology: Construction of a yeast chromosome p.168


doi: 10.1038/509168a

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Cosmology: A virtual Universe p.170


doi: 10.1038/509170a

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Biodiversity: Supply and demand p.171


doi: 10.1038/nature13332

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Ecology: Diversity in the afterlife p.173


doi: 10.1038/509173a

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Structural biology: Action at a distance in a light receptor p.174


doi: 10.1038/nature13331

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Properties of galaxies reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation p.177

A simulation that starts 12 million years after the Big Bang and traces 13 billion years of cosmic evolution yields a reasonable population of elliptical and spiral galaxies, reproduces the observed distribution of galaxies in clusters and the characteristics of hydrogen on large scales, and at the same time matches the ‘metal’ and hydrogen content of galaxies on small scales.

doi: 10.1038/nature13316

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FXR is a molecular target for the effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy p.183

Bariatric surgical procedures, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), are the most effective therapy for the treatment of obesity; now bile acids, and the presence of the nuclear bile acid receptor FXR, are shown to underpin the mechanism of VSG action, and the ability of VSG to reduce body weight and improve glucose tolerance is substantially reduced if FXR is absent.

doi: 10.1038/nature13135

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Astrocyte-encoded positional cues maintain sensorimotor circuit integrity p.189

Populations of astrocytes in the spinal cord are shown to express region-specific genes, with ventral astrocyte-encoded Sema3a necessary for proper motor neuron circuit organization and typical sensory afferent projection patterns; these findings suggest that astrocytes provide a positional cue for maintaining proper circuit formation and refinement.

doi: 10.1038/nature13161

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Synapse elimination and learning rules co-regulated by MHC class I H2-Db p.195

This study reveals a role for the MHC class I molecule H2-Db in retinogeniculate synapse elimination; expression of this immune system molecule in neurons lacking it is sufficient to rescue proper synapse pruning, as well as the segregation of eye-specific circuits in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature13154

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宇宙:GRB 121024Aの可視領域の残光における円偏光

Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A p.201

Circularly polarized light is unexpectedly detected in the afterglow of γ-ray burst GRB 121024A measured 0.15 days after the burst, and is shown to be intrinsic to the afterglow and unlikely to be produced by dust scattering or plasma propagation effects.

doi: 10.1038/nature13237

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Classical shear cracks drive the onset of dry frictional motion p.205

The transition between ‘static’ and ‘dynamic’ friction in a model system is found to be quantitatively captured by the same theoretical framework as is used to describe brittle fracture, but deviations from this correspondence are observed as the rupture velocity approaches the speed at which sound waves propagate along the interface.

doi: 10.1038/nature13202

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Tropical forcing of the recent rapid Arctic warming in northeastern Canada and Greenland p.209

Human-induced climate change is usually assumed to be responsible for the dramatic thawing of glaciers since the mid 1990s in Greenland and northeastern Canada; approximately half of the observed warming in this region during this period is now found to be attributable to atmospheric circulation changes that may be of natural origin.

doi: 10.1038/nature13260

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Predicting biodiversity change and averting collapse in agricultural landscapes p.213

A new, holistic view of countryside biogeography is emerging for the world’s human-modified habitats and the biodiversity they support.

doi: 10.1038/nature13139

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Consequences of biodiversity loss for litter decomposition across biomes p.218

Field experiments across aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems show that biodiversity positively affects carbon and nitrogen cycling in leaf litter decomposition, indicating that reduced decomposition caused by biodiversity loss would modify the global carbon cycle and limit the nitrogen supply to the organisms at the base of the food chain.

doi: 10.1038/nature13247

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Niche filling slows the diversification of Himalayan songbirds p.222

In Himalayan songbirds, the speciation rate is ultimately set by ecological competition, rather than by the rate of acquisition of reproductive isolation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13272

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Sensory stimulation shifts visual cortex from synchronous to asynchronous states p.226

Intracellular recordings distinguish between mechanisms that can account for variability in primary visual cortex of alert primates, consistent with a scheme in which spiking is driven by infrequent synchronous events during fixation, with sensory stimulation shifting the cortex to an asynchronous state.

doi: 10.1038/nature13159

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Listeria monocytogenes exploits efferocytosis to promote cell-to-cell spread p.230

The intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is shown to exploit efferocytosis—the process by which dead or dying cells are removed by phagocytosis—to promote cell-to-cell spread during infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature13168

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NRROS negatively regulates reactive oxygen species during host defence and autoimmunity p.235

The leucine-rich repeat protein NRROS which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum regulates phagocytic NADPH oxidase, minimizing collateral tissue damage caused by reactive oxygen species during inflammatory processes.

doi: 10.1038/nature13152

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Endosomes are specialized platforms for bacterial sensing and NOD2 signalling p.240

The endo-lysosomal transporters SLC15A3 and SLC15A4 provide a portal of entry for extracellular bacterial products that activate the cytoplasmic sensor NOD2; these results establish the importance of endosomes as signalling platforms specialized for triggering innate immune responses.

doi: 10.1038/nature13133

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Signal amplification and transduction in phytochrome photosensors p.245

The solution and crystal structures of a bacterial phytochrome photosensory core in both its resting and activated states are determined; switching between closed (resting) and open (activated) forms is found to be mediated by a conserved ‘tongue’, and the structures indicate that smaller changes in the vicinity of the chromophore are amplified in scale as they are transmitted through the tongue and beyond.

doi: 10.1038/nature13310

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