Genetic privacy p.451

The ability to identify an individual from their anonymous genome sequence, using a clever algorithm and data from public databases, threatens the principle of subject confidentiality.

doi: 10.1038/493451a

Full Text


Vigilance needed p.451

Experiments that make deadly pathogens more dangerous demand the utmost scrutiny.

doi: 10.1038/493451b

Full Text


Science stakes p.452

With the Royal Institution in trouble, Britain’s crowded public-science scene must evolve.

doi: 10.1038/493452a

Full Text



Greenland defied ancient warming p.459

But Antarctic glaciers may be more vulnerable than thought.

doi: 10.1038/493459a

Full Text


Work resumes on lethal flu strains p.460

Study of lab-made viruses a ‘public-health responsibility’.

doi: 10.1038/493460a

Full Text


Researchers debate oil-spill remedy p.461

Oil industry maintains that dispersants should be part of routine response to deep-water blowouts.

doi: 10.1038/493461a

Full Text


International aid projects come under the microscope p.462

Clinical-research techniques deployed to assess effectiveness of aid initiatives.

doi: 10.1038/493462a

Full Text


Fresh bid to see exo-Earths p.464

Improved instruments and a telescope windfall could aid the search for extrasolar life.

doi: 10.1038/493464a

Full Text


Japan’s stimulus package showers science with cash p.465

But new leadership’s largesse brings expectations of fast commercial pay-offs.

doi: 10.1038/493465a

Full Text

News Features


Mapping brain networks: Fish-bowl neuroscience p.466


doi: 10.1038/493466a

Full Text


Social evolution: The ritual animal p.470


doi: 10.1038/493470a

Full Text

News & Views


Neuroscience: Strength in numbers p.482

記憶の長期増強と呼ばれる過程は、学習や記憶などのニューロンレベルでの情報貯蔵にかかわっている。in vitro研究の1つから、この過程についての分子レベルでの考え方を覆す結果が出たが、このデータから推論されることについて、研究者たちの見解はまちまちである。

doi: 10.1038/493482a

Full Text


Bioenergy: Biofuel production on the margins p.483


doi: 10.1038/nature11853

Full Text


Solar physics: Towards ever smaller length scales p.485

太陽コロナの中にある構造の実際のスケールを決定するのは、空間分解能が制限されるために困難であるとわかっている。今回、高分解能での画像化が成功したことで、150 kmのスケールでの動的構造が観測された。

doi: 10.1038/493485a

Full Text


Palaeontology: Gritting their teeth p.486


doi: 10.1038/493486a

Full Text


Cancer: The to and fro of tumour spread p.487


doi: 10.1038/493487a

Full Text



Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core p.489

Reconstruction of the Eemian interglacial from the new NEEM ice core shows that in spite of a climate warmer by eight degrees Celsius in Northern Greenland than that of the past millennium, the ice here was only a few hundred metres lower than its present level.

doi: 10.1038/nature11789

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


LTP requires a reserve pool of glutamate receptors independent of subunit type p.495

Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is thought to be an important cellular mechanism underlying memory formation. A widely accepted model posits that LTP requires the cytoplasmic carboxyl tail (C-tail) of the AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptor subunit GluA1. To find the minimum necessary requirement of the GluA1 C-tail for LTP in mouse CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons, we used a single-cell molecular replacement strategy to replace all endogenous AMPA receptors with transfected subunits. In contrast to the prevailing model, we found no requirement of the GluA1 C-tail for LTP. In fact, replacement with the GluA2 subunit showed normal LTP, as did an artificially expressed kainate receptor not normally found at these synapses. The only conditions under which LTP was impaired were those with markedly decreased AMPA receptor surface expression, indicating a requirement for a reserve pool of receptors. These results demonstrate the synapse’s remarkable flexibility to potentiate with a variety of glutamate receptor subtypes, requiring a fundamental change in our thinking with regard to the core molecular events underlying synaptic plasticity.

doi: 10.1038/nature11775

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF



Energy release in the solar corona from spatially resolved magnetic braids p.501

Solar observations at a resolution of 0.2 arc seconds show the reconnection and relaxation of magnetic braids in a coronal active region, leading to the dissipation of sufficient energy to heat the structures to about 4,000,000 K.

doi: 10.1038/nature11772

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

物性:半導体の40 Kのレーザー冷却

Laser cooling of a semiconductor by 40 kelvin p.504

Net laser cooling from 290 kelvin to about 250 kelvin is achieved in semiconductor cadmium sulphide ‘nanobelts’ and attributed to strong coupling between excitons and longitudinal optical phonons.

doi: 10.1038/nature11721

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Interface-engineered templates for molecular spin memory devices p.509

When molecules of a phenalenyl derivative, which has no net spin, are deposited on a ferromagnet, they develop into a magnetic supramolecular layer with spin-filtering properties; this could be the basis for a new approach to building molecular magnetic devices.

doi: 10.1038/nature11719

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Sustainable bioenergy production from marginal lands in the US Midwest p.514

A comparative assessment of six alternative cropping systems over 20 years shows that, once well established, successional herbaceous vegetation grown on marginal lands has a direct greenhouse gas emissions mitigation capacity that rivals that of purpose-grown crops.

doi: 10.1038/nature11811

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Stable creeping fault segments can become destructive as a result of dynamic weakening p.518

An earthquake source model in which stable, rate-strengthening behaviour at low slip rates is combined with coseismic weakening due to rapid shear heating of pore fluids, allowing unstable slip to occur in segments that can creep between events, explains a number of both long-term and coseismic observations of faults that hosted the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake.

doi: 10.1038/nature11703

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Earliest evidence for cheese making in the sixth millennium bc in northern Europe p.522

Biomarker and stable isotopic analysis of lipid residues from perforated pottery vessels from sixth millennium bc Europe are consistent with these vessels having been used for making cheese, a low-lactose dairy product with digestion and storage advantages for the prehistoric lactose-intolerant farming communities.

doi: 10.1038/nature11698

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Insights into bilaterian evolution from three spiralian genomes OPEN p.526

Comparative analysis of the genomes of one mollusc (Lottia gigantea) and two annelids (Capitella teleta and Helobdella robusta) enable a more complete reconstruction of genomic features of the last common ancestors of protostomes, bilaterians and metazoans; against this conserved background they provide the first glimpse into lineage-specific evolution and diversity of the lophotrochozoans.

doi: 10.1038/nature11696

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Rapid regulation of depression-related behaviours by control of midbrain dopamine neurons p.532

Optogenetic induction of phasic, but not tonic, firing in VTA dopamine neurons induces susceptibility to stress in mice undergoing a subthreshold social-defeat paradigm and in previously resilient mice that have been subjected to repeated social-defeat stress, and this effect is projection-pathway specific.

doi: 10.1038/nature11713

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Dopamine neurons modulate neural encoding and expression of depression-related behaviour p.537

Specific manipulation of midbrain dopamine neurons in freely moving rodents shows that their inhibition or excitation immediately modulates depression-like phenotypes that are induced by chronic mild stress, and that their activation alters the neural encoding of depression-related behaviours in the nucleus accumbens.

doi: 10.1038/nature11740

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Serine starvation induces stress and p53-dependent metabolic remodelling in cancer cells p.542

The authors show that p53 helps cancer cells survive serine depletion by coordinating metabolic remodelling; a diet lacking serine slowed tumour growth in mice, with p53-null tumours showing greatest sensitivity to serine starvation.

doi: 10.1038/nature11743

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Apoptotic cell clearance by bronchial epithelial cells critically influences airway inflammation p.547

Airway epithelial cells are important in immune homeostasis in that they dampen immune activation by clearing dying cells and producing anti-inflammatory cytokines.

doi: 10.1038/nature11714

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


Functional and evolutionary insight from the crystal structure of rubella virus protein E1 p.552

The crystal structure of rubella virus E1 glycoprotein in its post-fusion form reveals a class II fusion protein with distinct features so far unseen in any other crystallized fusion protein; the location of an antibody-neutralization epitope also suggests that rubella-specific antibodies may function through prevention of E1 glycoprotein trimer formation during cell entry.

doi: 10.1038/nature11741

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


RNAi triggered by specialized machinery silences developmental genes and retrotransposons p.557

In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNA interference (RNAi) machinery promotes heterochromatin assembly and silencing of centromeric repeats; here it is shown that RNAi participates in silencing other genomic regions, such as sexual differentiation genes and retrotransposons, and this process is regulated by developmental and environmental signals.

doi: 10.1038/nature11716

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF


TET2 promotes histone O-GlcNAcylation during gene transcription p.561

TET2 is shown to associate with OGT, which catalyses O-GlcNAcylation, and the two enzymes are found together at transcription start sites; TET2 facilitates the activity of OGT in O-GlcNAcylation of histone 2B, and epigenetic modifications to both DNA and histones by TET2 and OGT may be important in gene transcription regulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature11742

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

「Journal home」に戻る