目次

Editorials

欧州は、健康食品の効果に科学的証明を求める規制強化を堅持し、植物由来の食品も含めるかの決定を急ぐべきだ。

Culture shock p.133

Health-benefit claims for Europe’s foods must at last be substantiated by science.

doi: 10.1038/493133b

コネチカット州銃乱射事件の犯人のDNA解析が、確たる根拠なく特定の遺伝的要因の危険視につながれば、益よりも害の方が大きい。

No easy answer p.133

Demands to analyse Connecticut school shooter’s DNA are misguided and could lead to dangerous stigmatization, or worse.

doi: 10.1038/493133a

地球に被害をもたらす未知の要因はさまざまあるが、制御可能な危険、特に人類が作り出した危機に関心を向けるべきだ。

Realities of risk p.134

We should focus on dangers that we can control, and particularly on those of our own creation.

doi: 10.1038/493134a

News

欧州のCCS(二酸化炭素回収貯留)技術の活用が、資金と政治が原因で、暗礁に。

Europe’s untamed carbon p.141

Funding and politics hobble CCS technology, seen as the best hope for cleaning up coal.

doi: 10.1038/493141a

メタマテリアル内部のナノ構造を調べるのに、電子ビームが威力を。

Electron beams set nanostructures aglow p.143

Physicists borrow an old tool from geology to probe the interior layers of metamaterials.

doi: 10.1038/493143a

水銀汚染防止を目指す水銀条約の策定に向け、各国政府が最終交渉へ。

Tough talk over mercury treaty p.144

Nations debate how to share the costs of cutting emissions.

doi: 10.1038/493144a

iPS細胞が免疫応答を誘発する恐れは大きくないことがわかり、応用への期待に弾みが。

Safety of induced stem cells gets a boost p.145

Fears of immune response have been overestimated.

doi: 10.1038/493145a

不正行為をした科学者が研究に復帰できるよう、倫理学者が「リハビリ」の試みを。

‘Rehab’ helps errant researchers return to the lab p.147

As cases of misconduct rise, ethicists test an approach for reforming offenders.

doi: 10.1038/493147a

News Features

神経科学:数字ゲーム

Dyscalculia: Number games p.150

英国の認知神経科学者が、計算力障害(失計算症)の解明と患者の訓練、支援に力を注いでいる。

doi: 10.1038/493150a

大災害:不測の事態を予測せよ

Planetary disasters: It could happen one night p.154

地球は必ず破滅の危機に襲われるが、それがいつかは誰にもわからない。

doi: 10.1038/493154a

News & Views

量子物理学:時間の結晶

Quantum physics: Time crystals p.166

物理学には、時間の結晶という途方もない概念が提唱されている。この興味をそそる考えは、時間並進対称性の破れに基づくもので、全く新しい研究分野を開く可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/493166a

動物行動:年は上だが賢くはない

Animal behaviour: Older but less wise p.167

禁漁海域に生息する魚の大半は、それ以外の場所にいる魚に比べて齢が高く、大型で多産だが、脅威から逃れるのは遅い。このような魚が漁場へと「漏れ出す」可能性を考えれば、禁漁区の設置への支持が増えるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/493167a

材料科学:トポロジーが重要

Materials science: Topology matters p.168

液晶中に懸濁したマイクロメートルスケールの粒子の研究から、粒子の「振る舞い」に対するトポロジーの影響が明らかになった。この知見は、フォトニクスやエレクトロオプティクスの分野での応用への道を開く可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/493168a

発生生物学:脊椎動物の頭蓋顔面の発生

Developmental biology: Led by the nose p.169

ヌタウナギは、現生脊椎動物の中で最も原始的なものと考えられているが、胚発生の際には、この考え方と矛盾するような特徴を示すことがわかった。この知見はまた、脊椎動物の頭蓋構造の進化をたどるのを助けてくれる。

doi: 10.1038/nature11766

フォトニクス:指先に載るフェーズドアレイ

Photonics: Phased array on a fingertip p.170

4,000個を超える光学アンテナが同期して働くアレイが、ミリメートルスケールのシリコンチップ上で実証された。この結果は、シリコン上での光集積が非常に高い能力を発揮することをはっきり示している。

doi: 10.1038/493170a

構造生物学:インスリンとその受容体の結合

Structural biology: Insulin meets its receptor p.171

インスリンはヒトの生理学的性質に重要な役割を担っている。だが、インスリンが細胞表面にあるその受容体にどのようにして結合するのかという根本的な生化学的問題の答えは、現在まで得られていなかった。

doi: 10.1038/493171a

高分子化学:無駄なループを数える

Polymer chemistry: Wasted loops quantified p.172

ゲルの高分子ネットワークを分析する方法の1つを使えば、ネットワーク内のループ、すなわち自分自身とつながっているストランドの数を数えることができる。これがわかると、ネットワークの形態とゲルの性質を相関させることが可能になる。

doi: 10.1038/493172a

地球科学:氷河が広がる仕組み

Earth science: How glaciers grow p.173

最先端の数値モデルによって、寒冷な気候における氷河の進行は、すでに存在する地形に強く依存すること、また氷河による侵食が氷河の将来の規模をより大きくするのを助けることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/493173a

Articles

進化:ヌタウナギの頭蓋顔面の発生と脊椎動物の進化

Craniofacial development of hagfishes and the evolution of vertebrates p.175

Cyclostomes, the living jawless vertebrates including hagfishes and lampreys, represent the most basal lineage of vertebrates. Although the monophyly of cyclostomes has been supported by recent molecular analyses, the phenotypic traits of hagfishes, especially the lack of some vertebrate-defining features and the reported endodermal origin of the adenohypophysis, have been interpreted as hagfishes exhibiting a more ancestral state than those of all other vertebrates. Furthermore, the adult anatomy of hagfishes cannot be compared easily with that of lampreys. Here we describe the craniofacial development of a series of staged hagfish embryos, which shows that their adenohypophysis arises ectodermally, consistent with the molecular phylogenetic data. This finding also allowed us to identify a pan-cyclostome pattern, one not shared by jawed vertebrates. Comparative analyses indicated that many of the hagfish-specific traits can be explained by changes secondarily introduced into the hagfish lineage. We also propose a possibility that the pan-cyclostome pattern may reflect the ancestral programme for the craniofacial development of all living vertebrates.

doi: 10.1038/nature11794

構造生物学:セルロースの合成と膜を越える輸送の結晶学的スナップショット

Crystallographic snapshot of cellulose synthesis and membrane translocation p.181

Cellulose, the most abundant biological macromolecule, is an extracellular, linear polymer of glucose molecules. It represents an essential component of plant cell walls but is also found in algae and bacteria. In bacteria, cellulose production frequently correlates with the formation of biofilms, a sessile, multicellular growth form. Cellulose synthesis and transport across the inner bacterial membrane is mediated by a complex of the membrane-integrated catalytic BcsA subunit and the membrane-anchored, periplasmic BcsB protein. Here we present the crystal structure of a complex of BcsA and BcsB from Rhodobacter sphaeroides containing a translocating polysaccharide. The structure of the BcsA–BcsB translocation intermediate reveals the architecture of the cellulose synthase, demonstrates how BcsA forms a cellulose-conducting channel, and suggests a model for the coupling of cellulose synthesis and translocation in which the nascent polysaccharide is extended by one glucose molecule at a time.

doi: 10.1038/nature11744

Letters

宇宙:M 31の超高光度の恒星質量マイクロクェーサーからの明るい電波放射

Bright radio emission from an ultraluminous stellar-mass microquasar in M 31 p.187

A new ultraluminous X-ray source has been discovered in M 31, whose variability and associated bright, compact radio emission identify it as a stellar-mass black hole accreting close to the Eddington limit.

doi: 10.1038/nature11697

宇宙:原始惑星の間隙を通過するガスの流れ

Flows of gas through a protoplanetary gap p.191

Observations of the young star HD 142527, whose disk is separated into inner and outer regions by a gap suggestive of the formation of a gaseous giant planet, show that accretion onto the star is maintained by a flow of gas across the gap, in agreement with dynamical models of planet formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature11769

工学:大規模ナノフォトニックフェーズドアレイ

Large-scale nanophotonic phased array p.195

A large-scale silicon nanophotonic phased array with more than 4,000 antennas is demonstrated using a state-of-the-art complementary metal-oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) process, enabling arbitrary holograms with tunability, which brings phased arrays to many new technological territories.

doi: 10.1038/nature11727

工学:トポロジカルコロイド

Topological colloids p.200

Topologically distinct colloidal particles introduced into a nematic liquid crystal align and generate topology-constrained three-dimensional director fields and defects in the liquid crystal fluid that can be manipulated with a variety of methods, opening up a new area of exploration in the field of soft matter.

doi: 10.1038/nature11710

気候:進化する地形により前もって調整された氷河の気候変動に対する応答

Glaciations in response to climate variations preconditioned by evolving topography p.206

Previously glaciated landscapes tend to have large areas concentrated at the same elevation; here it is shown that small climate changes can trigger massive glacial expansions for these landscapes, explaining long-term patterns of erosion in the Quaternary period.

doi: 10.1038/nature11786

地球:地球上部マントルにおける二酸化炭素に富むケイ酸塩メルト

Carbon-dioxide-rich silicate melt in the Earth’s upper mantle p.211

Carbon-dioxide-rich kimberlitic melt explains the low velocity and high electrical conductivity of the mantle asthenosphere and controls the flux of incompatible elements at oceanic ridges.

doi: 10.1038/nature11731

遺伝:6,515例のエキソーム分析から、ヒトのタンパク質コード領域にある変異の大部分は起源が比較的新しいことが明らかになった

Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants p.216

Resequencing of genes from individuals of European and African American ancestry indicates that approximately 73% of all protein-coding SNVs and approximately 86% of SNVs predicted to be deleterious arose in the past 5,000–10,000 years, and that European Americans carry an excess of deleterious variants in essential and Mendelian disease genes compared to African Americans.

doi: 10.1038/nature11690

神経生物学:ショウジョウバエの NOMPCは軽い接触の感知にかかわる機械刺激変換チャネルサブユニットである

Drosophila NOMPC is a mechanotransduction channel subunit for gentle-touch sensation p.221

Mechanotransduction channels studied to date are mainly involved with sensing noxious mechanical stimuli; here NOMPC, a member of the TRP ion channel family, is identified as a pore-forming subunit of an ion channel essential to the sensation of gentle touch in Drosophila.

doi: 10.1038/nature11685

細胞:Fasn依存的な脂質生成による成体の神経幹細胞活性の代謝的制御

Metabolic control of adult neural stem cell activity by Fasn-dependent lipogenesis p.226

Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) show high levels of fatty acid synthase (Fasn)-dependent de novo lipogenesis, a process that is controlled by Spot14 to regulate the rate of proliferation; this indicates a functional coupling between the regulation of lipid metabolism and adult NSPC proliferation.

doi: 10.1038/nature11689

遺伝:長鎖非コードRNA TINCRによる体細胞組織分化の制御

Control of somatic tissue differentiation by the long non-coding RNA TINCR p.231

The human long non-coding RNA TINCR binds to STAU1 and controls epidermal differentiation by stabilizing key differentiation mRNAs, by means of a TINCR-binding motif found enriched in epidermal differentiation genes.

doi: 10.1038/nature11661

医学:COUP-TFIIはTGF-βによる腫瘍障壁を阻害して前立腺がん発生を促進する

COUP-TFII inhibits TGF-β-induced growth barrier to promote prostate tumorigenesis p.236

A cell-autonomous role for the COUP-TFII transcription factor in prostate cancer cells is identified, in which COUP-TFII inhibits TGF-β signalling by binding to SMAD4; COUP-TFII promotes prostate tumorigenesis and metastasis in a mouse model, and is associated with more aggressive disease in human prostate cancers.

doi: 10.1038/nature11674

構造生物学:インスリンがその受容体の主要結合部位に結合する仕組み

How insulin engages its primary binding site on the insulin receptor p.241

The three-dimensional structure of the insulin–insulin receptor complex has proved elusive, confounded by the complexity of producing the receptor protein; here is the first glimpse of the interaction between insulin and its primary binding site on the insulin receptor, a view based on four crystal structures of insulin bound to truncated insulin receptor complexes.

doi: 10.1038/nature11781

遺伝:組み換えにより再開した複製は逆方向反復配列で逆位染色体を融合させる

Recombination-restarted replication makes inverted chromosome fusions at inverted repeats p.246

A new mechanism of chromosomal rearrangement is identified through the observation that broken or collapsed DNA replication forks restarted by homologous recombination have a high propensity for U-turns at short inverted repeats; the error-prone nature of this mechanism is suggested to contribute to gross chromosomal rearrangements and copy-number variations present in cancer and other genomic disorders.

doi: 10.1038/nature11676

細胞:複製後の修復には、コヒーシンのクライシンサブユニットのセパラーゼに依存した除去がかかわっている

Post-replicative repair involves separase-dependent removal of the kleisin subunit of cohesin p.250

Cohesin, which tethers sister chromatids together, is found to be cleaved by separase after DNA damage, resulting in cohesin dissociation and allowing for post-replicative repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

doi: 10.1038/nature11630

構造生物学:胃内病原菌であるピロリ菌由来のプロトン感受性尿素チャネルの構造

Structure of the proton-gated urea channel from the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori p.255

The crystal structure of the inner-membrane urea channel HpUreI from Helicobacter pylori, the causative organism of peptic ulcers, reveals how the channel selectively transports urea across the membrane and buffers the pathogen’s periplasmic pH against the acidic gastric environment.

doi: 10.1038/nature11684

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