Press release

New Nature Index data shows China on top for natural sciences as US leads on health sciences research

15 June 2023

For the second year running, China sees the largest increase in research output among top-ten countries. The Nature Index Annual Tables reveal the institutions that have helped China surpass the United States as the leading country in the natural sciences.

London | Berlin | Sydney | Tokyo, 15 June 2023

The 2023 Nature Index Annual Tables examine the institutions and countries that contributed most to high-quality research published in 2022. The tables, released today, show that in the natural sciences China has moved above the United States to take the top spot. In the health sciences - included for the first time - the US is the leading nation.

China has moved from second place to first for its overall contribution to research in the four natural sciences categories (physical sciences, chemistry, biological sciences**, and Earth and environmental sciences) covered by Nature Index, as measured by Share. With a 21.4% growth in adjusted Share compared with 2021, China had the largest increase among the top ten countries in the Annual Tables.

Share, Nature Index’s signature metric, measures contributions to research publications included in the database by taking account of the proportion of authors on an article with an affiliation at a particular location. Adjusted Share allows for a small annual variation in the total number of articles in the Nature Index. (See notes below for more)

China’s dominance in the natural-sciences categories is also apparent in the institutional tables:

  • Six of the ten leading institutions are Chinese - alongside two from the United States and one each from France and Germany, respectively.
  • For the eleventh consecutive year since the Index was established, the Chinese Academy of Sciences leads with a Share of 2,054 in 2022. This is a distant lead over Harvard University, in second place with a Share of 813, and Germany’s Max Planck Society, in third place with a Share of 682.
  • In Earth and environmental science, Sun Yat-sen University has seen growth of more than 50% in adjusted Share from 2021 to 2022.
  • Fudan has seen a rise of 65% in Biological SciencesAnd Chinese institutions make up 18 of the top 20 institutions in chemistry

Whilst China’s research output has taken the lead from the United States, the US is still a commanding presence in the tables. Both the US and China have 19 institutions among the leading 50 in the natural-sciences categories.

For the first time this year, the Nature Index database now includes articles from 64 medical journals so users can track trends in the health sciences*. Within this area, the United States has a sizable lead, with a Share of 5,352, which is more than four times the Share of China (1,287), in second place.

  • Fifteen of the Top 20 institutions in the health-sciences category are from the United States.
  • Harvard University leads with a share of 487, followed by the National Institutes of Health, in second place with a Share of 188.
  • Only Canada, China, Sweden and the United Kingdom feature alongside US institutions in the Top 20

Commenting on this year’s Index, David Swinbanks, Founder of the Nature Index, said: “Trends in the Nature Index Annual Tables in recent years pointed to it being a matter of when, not if, China’s research investment saw them overtake the United States in the natural sciences. The size of their growth across 2021 to 2022 meant falls elsewhere were inevitable and we can see it across the other leading nations. China’s strength there however has not impacted health sciences, where the United States dominates the global field.

“Outside of China and the United States we are seeing a mixed global picture. We have seen significant drops in Latin American countries, with Brazil, Chile and Mexico all seeing large Share falls. There were also double-digit drops in adjusted Share for Australia, down 14%, Singapore, which fell by 15% and Russia, which dropped by 17%.”

<Japan’s research capability in Nature Index 2023>

Japan keeps its 5th place in the country-based rankings but its output in natural sciences declines 2 years in a row

From the 2023 Nature Index Annual Tables, the database has been updated to include author affiliation information from primary-research articles in 64 medical journals together with the 82 natural science journals. Users can now track trends in the health sciences.

In region/country-based rankings for the field of natural sciences only and for both fields (natural sciences and health sciences), Japan is in 5th place in both rankings. Looking at health sciences only, Japan is in 9th place in the region/country-based rankings.

“Natural sciences only” – country/region tables for 2023

In the natural sciences field only, Japan’s Share is 2,742.49 and its output declined by 9.6%, which was the largest decline within the top 5 countries (Rankings and change in Adjusted Share of top 5 countries: 1. China (+21.4%), 2. USA (-6.9%), 3. Germany (-9.1%), 4. UK (-8.9%), 5. Japan (-9.6%).

“Natural sciences only” – global institution tables for 2023

Japanese institutions that ranked in the top 100 (updated in 2023) were: The University of Tokyo (2023: 18th, 2022: 14th, 2021: 8th), Kyoto University (2023: 44th, 2022: 37th, 2021: 37th), Osaka University (2023: 74th, 2022: 64th, 2021: 65th), and Tohoku University (2023: 89th, 2022: 103rd, 2020: 76th).

All Japanese institutions in the top 100, apart from Tohoku University (+9.9%), showed a decline in output for 2022. Japanese institutions’ Adjusted Share declined in 2022 by 5.6%, 8.9%, and 11.7% for Kyoto University, Osaka University, and the University of Tokyo respectively. The University of Tokyo’s decline in Adjusted Share was the second highest among the top 20 institutions, following Oxford University (19th place, -16.7%), whereas the highest increase in Adjusted Share was Nanjing University (7th place, +25.5%).

RIKEN, which was in the top 100 in 2022, dropped their position to 103rd place in the 2023 tables.

“Natural sciences and health sciences” - global institution tables for 2023

Japanese institutions that ranked in the top 100 were: The University of Tokyo (2023: 20th), Kyoto University (2023: 44th), Osaka University (2023: 77th), and Tohoku University (2023: 99th), which were the same institutions as those that ranked in the top 100 “natural sciences only” rankings.

Rankings as of June 12, 2023. For the latest data, please refer to

The 2023 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2022 to 31 December 2022.

Note to Editors

Research output has also been split by sector, with leading institution tables available by field of research available here.

Nature Index is part of the Nature Research Intelligence portfolio, helping you navigate the world of high-quality scientific research, make informed research decisions and collaborate with confidence.

To claim a custom badge for your institution's performance in the 2023 annual tables please contact

While the Nature Index Annual Tables are a good indicator of high research output in the natural and health sciences, we encourage readers to use the findings alongside other scientific outputs such as data, software and intellectual property when considering research quality and institutional performance.

It should be borne in mind that the Index is a zero-sum game with a finite number of about 75,000 articles published per year in the Index journals. With China and its institutions rising so much, other countries and institutions have to fall in the competition to publish in the 146 journals of the Index.

*Similar to the method used for the natural sciences, the list of health-science journals was determined by a panel of independent clinical researchers and informed by a global survey of the wider research community.

**The subject category of ‘biological sciences’ was previously called ‘life sciences’.

About the Nature Index metrics

Nature Index’s signature metric, Share, is a fractional count for an article allocated to an institution, city or country/region, that takes into account the proportion of authors on the article whose institutional affiliation is with that institution or location. Adjusted Share takes account of a small annual variation in the total number of articles in the Nature Index.

The other main Nature Index metric is Count. A country/region or an institution is given a Count of 1 for each article that has at least one author from that country/region or institution.

For further explanation, please see

Note: The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. Nature Index recognises that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at

The Nature Index is a database of author affiliations and institutional relationships. The index tracks contributions to research articles published in 146 high-quality natural-science and health-science journals, chosen by an independent group of researchers.

The Nature Index provides absolute and fractional counts of article publication at the institutional and national level and, as such, is an indicator of global high-quality research output and collaboration. Data in the Nature Index are updated regularly, with the most recent 12 months made available under a Creative Commons licence at The database is compiled by Nature Research Intelligence, part of Springer Nature.

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Our range of data and analytics solutions helps you gain an in-depth assessment of a research landscape, understand your current position in that field, and build research topic summaries to avoid information overload. Combined, Nature Research Intelligence helps you define and optimise your future research strategies.

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Ayako Miyazaki
Springer Nature
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