Research press release


Nature Medicine

Targeted treatments may improve tuberculosis therapy



R Savicたちは、既存の臨床試験データを解析し、塗抹検査で低グレードと判定された結核患者の場合、4か月の薬剤治療で6か月投与したのと同等な効果が得られることを明らかにした。これとは対照的に、治療計画に対するアドヒアランスの低さ、HIVの同時感染、および高グレードの結核感染は転帰不良に関連付けられ、このような場合には治療期間を長くする必要があるらしいことが示された。これらの知見を臨床に活用すれば、病気の治癒が早まり、結核という世界的負担も軽減できる可能性がある。

Treatment regimens for tuberculosis (TB) could be shortened by two months for some patients, according to an analysis of data from over 3,000 individuals previously treated for TB, reports a paper published online this week in Nature Medicine.

TB kills more people than any other infectious disease. Although effective TB therapy exists, it consists of a six-month multidrug regimen that comes with potentially adverse side effects. These can result in poor patient adherence to the prescribed treatment, the development of drug resistance, and persistent infection and transmission. To improve adherence and cure rates, it is critical to identify either less toxic drugs or patients who are eligible for better-tailored durations of existing therapies.

Rada Savic and colleagues analyse existing clinical trial data and find that for patients with low-grade TB, four months of drug therapy was as effective as six months of the same treatment. In contrast, the authors find that poor adherence to treatment regimens, HIV co-infection, and high-grade TB infections were associated with poor outcomes and may signal the need for longer duration treatments in such cases. Applied clinically, these findings may accelerate TB cures and reduce global burden of the disease.

doi: 10.1038/s41591-018-0224-2


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