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===================================
Nature 489: 7415
13 Sep 2012
===================================

[自然要覽]

(選自英國Nature雜誌,2012年9月13日出版)

封面故事:社交網站對社會發展方式的影響
http://www.natureasia.com/zh-tw/nature/highlights/38925

慢性淋巴細胞性白血病中的抗原表達
http://www.natureasia.com/zh-tw/nature/highlights/38912

與幹細胞和壽命相關的蛋白酵素體
http://www.natureasia.com/zh-tw/nature/highlights/38913

“德朗熱綜合征”中的HDAC缺陷
http://www.natureasia.com/zh-tw/nature/highlights/38914

通過細胞取代來進行心臟修復
http://www.natureasia.com/zh-tw/nature/highlights/38915

空氣穿過熱帶森林易促成降雨
http://www.natureasia.com/zh-tw/nature/highlights/38920

表皮細胞更新的兩種途徑
http://www.natureasia.com/zh-tw/nature/highlights/38921

合成前列腺素的一個新路徑
http://www.natureasia.com/zh-tw/nature/highlights/38923

液體的無泡沸騰
http://www.natureasia.com/zh-tw/nature/highlights/38924

低熱量飲食並不能保證長壽命
http://www.natureasia.com/zh-tw/nature/highlights/38926


----------------------
NEWS & VIEWS
----------------------
Ageing: Mixed results for dieting monkeys pp210-211
According to previous studies, a low-calorie diet provides health benefits and increases lifespan in mammals, including primates. Yet a long-term investigation in rhesus monkeys finds no effect on longevity. See Letter p.318
Steven N. Austad
doi:10.1038/nature11484
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11484.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Biogeochemistry: Drought and tropical soil emissions pp211-212
Past research implied that positive feedback might exist between climate change and greenhouse-gas emissions from soil. A study finds that drought-induced declines in such emissions from tropical forests could counter climate change.
Cory C. Cleveland and Benjamin W. Sullivan
doi:10.1038/489211a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/489211a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Social science: Poked to vote pp212-214
A Facebook message sent out during the 2010 US congressional elections influenced the voting behaviour of millions of people. The experiment illustrates the power of digital social networks to spread behavioural change. See Letter p.295
Sinan Aral
doi:10.1038/489212a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/489212a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Organic synthesis: A biochemical messenger made easily pp214-215
Biochemicals known as prostaglandins are challenging targets for synthetic organic chemistry. Yet by channelling the reactivity of a simple reactant, a powerful synthesis of one such compound has been achieved. See Letter p.278
Erik J. Sorensen
doi:10.1038/489214a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/489214a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Cell biology: Dormant and restless skin stem cells pp215-217
It has been unclear whether a uniform group of stem cells gives rise to most cells in the epidermis. A study reveals the presence of at least two stem-cell populations that have different proliferative abilities. See Article p.257
Laura De Rosa and Michele De Luca
doi:10.1038/489215a
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/489215a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Environmental science: The rainforest's water pump pp217-218
An investigation of naturally occurring water recycling in rainforests finally marries the results of global climate models with observations. Alarmingly, it also suggests that deforestation can greatly reduce tropical rainfall. See Letter p.282
Luiz E. O. C. Aragao
doi:10.1038/nature11485
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11485.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

----------------------
ARTICLES
----------------------
Distinct contribution of stem and progenitor cells to epidermal maintenance pp257-262
Whether a single group of stem cells or multiple populations contribute to the homeostasis of the interfollicular epidermis is controversial; here the authors use lineage tracing and mathematical modelling to show that the progenitors that maintain mouse epidermis are underpinned by slow-cycling stem cells that become mobilized on injury.
Guilhem Mascre et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11393
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11393.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11393.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

RPN-6 determines C. elegans longevity under proteotoxic stress conditions pp263-268
This study shows that nematodes without a germ line re-allocate resources to the soma, resulting in elevated proteasome activity, clearance of damaged proteins and increased longevity; this activity is associated with the increased expression of rpn-6 mediated by the transcription factor DAF-16.
David Vilchez et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11315
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11315.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11315.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

----------------------
LETTERS
----------------------
Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward pp269-273
The benchmark for a global quantum internet — quantum teleportation of independent qubits using active feed-forward over a free-space link whose attenuation corresponds to the path between a satellite and a ground station — has now been successfully achieved over a distance of 143 km, between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife.
Xiao-Song Ma et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11472
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11472.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11472.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces pp274-277
Textured superhydrophobic surfaces—well known for their water-repelling properties—can be used to control the boiling state of a liquid in contact with a hot surface, suppressing the unwanted nucleation of bubbles.
Ivan U. Vakarelski et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11418
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11418.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11418.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Stereocontrolled organocatalytic synthesis of prostaglandin PGF in seven steps pp278-281
A concise new synthesis of the most complex of the prostaglandins—diverse hormone-like chemical messengers—should make existing prostaglandin-based drugs cheaper and also facilitate other related syntheses.
Graeme Coulthard, William Erb and Varinder K. Aggarwal
doi:10.1038/nature11411
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11411.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11411.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Observations of increased tropical rainfall preceded by air passage over forests pp282-285
Remote sensing and simulated atmospheric transport patterns are used to show that air passage over tropical forests produces about twice as much rain as passage over sparse vegetation; in an idealized Amazonian deforestation scenario, a reduction in seasonal precipitation of approximately 12-21% is estimated.
D. V. Spracklen, S. R. Arnold and C. M. Taylor
doi:10.1038/nature11390
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11390.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11390.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Ploughing the deep sea floor pp286-289
Bottom trawling is a fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear scrape along the sea bed, and is shown here to disturb sediment fluxes and modify the sea floor morphology over large spatial scales.
Pere Puig et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11410
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11410.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11410.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas pp290-294
Analysis of changes in functional groups of species and potential drivers of environmental change for protected areas across the world's major tropical regions reveals large variation between reserves that have been effective and those experiencing an erosion of biodiversity, and shows that environmental changes immediately outside reserves are nearly as important as those inside in determining their ecological fate.
William F. Laurance et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11318
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11318.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11318.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

A 61-million-person experiment in social influence and political mobilization pp295-298
Political mobilization messages delivered to 61 million Facebook users during the 2010 US congressional elections directly influenced political self-expression, information seeking and real-world voting behaviour of millions of people and their friends, with social transmission occurring mainly between close friends and having a greater effect than the direct effect of the messages themselves.
Robert M. Bond et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11421
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11421.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11421.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Activity in motor-sensory projections reveals distributed coding in somatosensation pp299-303
Imaging of activity in long-range axons is reported in mice performing tactile object-localization with their whiskers; the feedback projection from the motor cortex to the somatosensory cortex provides information to integrate whisker movement information and touch, which are key components of object identification.
Leopoldo Petreanu et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11321
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11321.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11321.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Increased proteasome activity in human embryonic stem cells is regulated by PSMD11 pp304-308
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are shown to have high 26S/30S proteasome activity owing to increased expression of the 19S proteasome subunit PSMD11; FOXO4 regulates proteasome activity in hESCs by modulating PSMD11 expression, and the high proteasome activity decreases after induced differentiation.
David Vilchez et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11468
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11468.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11468.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is driven by antigen-independent cell-autonomous signalling pp309-312
B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is found not to be dependent on exogenous antigens; instead, signalling may involve the binding of the BCR heavy-chain complementarity-determining region to self epitopes on the same receptor, a finding that may have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of CLL and potential therapeutic approaches.
Marcus Duhren-von Minden et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11309
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11309.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11309.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

HDAC8 mutations in Cornelia de Lange syndrome affect the cohesin acetylation cycle pp313-317
The deacetylase enzyme HDAC8 is identified as a crucial regulator of cohesin in humans, and loss-of-function mutations in the HDAC8 gene are found in patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome.
Matthew A. Deardorff et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11316
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11316.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11316.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Impact of caloric restriction on health and survival in rhesus monkeys from the NIA study pp318-321
The results of a 23-year study of caloric restriction in rhesus macaques are reported; restricted caloric intake did not increase survival, but improved the metabolic profile of monkeys started at older ages and showed a trend towards delaying age-associated disease in monkeys started at a young age.
Julie A. Mattison et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11432
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11432.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11432.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913

Human ES-cell-derived cardiomyocytes electrically couple and suppress arrhythmias in injured hearts pp322-325
A guinea-pig model of cardiac injury is used to show that human embryonic stem-cell-derived cardiomyocyte grafts can electrically integrate into the injured heart, improving mechanical function and reducing spontaneous and induced ventricular tachycardia; this is a major step towards clinical adoption of cell replacement therapies for cardiovascular diseases using human cardiomyocytes.
Yuji Shiba et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11317
Abstract: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/abs/nature11317.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913
Article: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7415/full/nature11317.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20120913


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