┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
2012年9月13日号 ┃ NATURE ┃ ネイチャー・パブリッシング・グループ
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛

==================================================================
□□□□□□   Nature コンテンツ   □□□□□□□
==================================================================

*** Nature Japanとつながろう ***************
Twitter: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfad
Facebook: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfae
Mixi: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaf
************************************************

----------------------
Editorials
----------------------
Count on me p177
科学者を評価する必要に迫られる場面がある以上、よりよい判断基準を探す努力を続けるべきだ。
doi:10.1038/489177a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfag

Secret weapons p177 - 178
米軍の兵器開発の秘密主義は、結局は技術の進歩、発展の妨げになる。
doi:10.1038/489177b
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfah

The name game p178
長い論争の末、動物学分野で、論文のオンライン発表だけでも新種の命名が認められることになった。
doi:10.1038/489178a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfai

----------------------
COLUMN: WORLD VIEW
----------------------
Predatory publishers are corrupting open access p179
Journals that exploit the author-pays model damage scholarly publishing and promote unethical behaviour by scientists, argues Jeffrey Beall.
doi:10.1038/489179a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaj

----------------------
Research Highlights
----------------------
Animal behaviour: Seals see glowing prey p180
doi:10.1038/489180a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfak

Astronomy: On the origin of Ia supernovae p180
doi:10.1038/489180b
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfal

Materials: Hydrogel makes buildings sweat p180
doi:10.1038/489180c
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfam

Molecular biology: Red-blood-cell regulator p180
doi:10.1038/489180d
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfan

Microbiology: Populations cooperate p180 - 181
doi:10.1038/489180e
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfao

Microbiology: Ecosystems compete p181
doi:10.1038/489181a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfap

Neuroscience: A treatable form of autism p181
doi:10.1038/489181b
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaq

Conservation biology: Tigers and people can coexist p181
doi:10.1038/489181c
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfar

Plant biotechnology: Engineered plants can use phosphite p181
doi:10.1038/489181d
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfas

Climate science: Calm Sun promotes chilly winters p181
doi:10.1038/489181e
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfat

----------------------
NEWS
----------------------
Ice loss shifts Arctic cycles pp185 - 186
Record shrinkage confounds models and portends atmospheric and ecological change.
Quirin Schiermeier
doi:10.1038/489185a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfau

Europe on alert for flying invaders pp187 - 188
Spread of disease-carrying mosquitoes prompts guidelines for boosting surveillance.
Declan Butler
doi:10.1038/489187a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfav

EU battles over research billions pp188 - 189
Politicians will spend the next few months negotiating cuts to Horizon 2020’s budget.
Natasha Gilbert
doi:10.1038/489188a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaw

Misconduct ruling is silent on intent pp189 - 190
Psychologist Marc Hauser admits errors but not fraud.
Eugenie Samuel Reich
doi:10.1038/489189a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfax

Cameras to focus on dark energy pp190 - 191
A pair of detectors that measure minute distortions in images of distant galaxies will probe the riddle of cosmic acceleration.
Eric Hand
doi:10.1038/489190a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfay

India moves to tackle antibiotic resistance p192
Drug regulator aims to restrict over-the-counter sales.
Erica Westly
doi:10.1038/489192a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaz

----------------------
FEATURES
----------------------
Deep-sea research: Dive master pp194 - 196
The US flagship submersible Alvin is getting a partial upgrade. But deep-sea exploration faces some rough water.
Richard Monastersky
doi:10.1038/489194a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfa1

Microwave weapons: Wasted energy pp198 - 200
Despite 50 years of research on high-power microwaves, the us military has yet to produce a usable weapon.
Sharon Weinberger
doi:10.1038/489198a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfa2

----------------------
Comment
----------------------
Future impact: Predicting scientific success p201 - 202
Daniel E. Acuna, Stefano Allesina and Konrad P. Kording present a formula to estimate the future h-index of life scientists.
Daniel E. Acuna, Stefano Allesina & Konrad P. Kording
doi:10.1038/489201a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfa3

Science policy: Well-funded investigators should receive extra scrutiny p203
An added layer of review for elite grant-holders upholds the mission of the National Institutes of Health, says Jeremy M. Berg.
Jeremy M. Berg
doi:10.1038/489203a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfa4

----------------------
Books and Arts
----------------------
Science fiction: The radium age p204 - 205
Joshua Glenn explores the dark, fascinating, largely forgotten science fiction of the early twentieth century.
Joshua Glenn
doi:10.1038/489204a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfa5

Books in brief p205
doi:10.1038/489205a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfa6

Q&A: Archivist of ice p206 - 207
For six years, photographer James Balog has trained his lens on ice, capturing time-lapse images that have helped scientists to study how glaciers and ice sheets respond to climate conditions. With the documentary Chasing Ice soon to debut in US cinemas, Balog talks about the loss of landscapes.
Jascha Hoffman
doi:10.1038/489206a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfa7

Physics: Modelling Feynman p207
Daniel Cressey marvels at a gleaming depiction of the subatomic by the world's leading information designer.
Daniel Cressey
doi:10.1038/489207a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfa8

----------------------
Correspondence
----------------------
Policy: Clarify the limits of climate models p208
David A Stainforth & Leonard A. Smith
doi:10.1038/489208a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfa9

Genomics: ENCODE leads the way on big data p208
Mark Gerstein
doi:10.1038/489208b
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaA

Media: Animal variants in sexual behaviour p208
Rowan Hooper
doi:10.1038/489208c
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaB

Research practice: A code of conduct for European scientists p208
Nils Axelsen & Xavier Bosch
doi:10.1038/489208d
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaC

History of science: Wallace pioneered astrobiology too p208
U. Kutschera
doi:10.1038/489208e
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaD

Correction p208
doi:10.1038/489208f
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaE

----------------------
News & Views
----------------------
老化: 食餌制限を行ったサルから得られたまちまちな結果
Ageing: Mixed results for dieting monkeys p210 - 211
According to previous studies, a low-calorie diet provides health benefits and increases lifespan in mammals, including primates. Yet a long-term investigation in rhesus monkeys finds no effect on longevity. See Letter p.318
Steven N. Austad
doi:10.1038/nature11484
Standfirst: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaF
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaG

生物地球化学: 干ばつと熱帯の土壌からの放出
Biogeochemistry: Drought and tropical soil emissions p211 - 212
Past research implied that positive feedback might exist between climate change and greenhouse-gas emissions from soil. A study finds that drought-induced declines in such emissions from tropical forests could counter climate change.
Cory C. Cleveland & Benjamin W. Sullivan
doi:10.1038/489211a
Standfirst: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaH
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaI

社会科学: 背中をつつかれて投票に行く
Social science: Poked to vote p212 - 214
A Facebook message sent out during the 2010 US congressional elections influenced the voting behaviour of millions of people. The experiment illustrates the power of digital social networks to spread behavioural change. See Letter p.295
Sinan Aral
doi:10.1038/489212a
Standfirst: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaJ
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaK

有機合成: 事態を容易にする生化学的メッセンジャー
Organic synthesis: A biochemical messenger made easily p214 - 215
Biochemicals known as prostaglandins are challenging targets for synthetic organic chemistry. Yet by channelling the reactivity of a simple reactant, a powerful synthesis of one such compound has been achieved. See Letter p.278
Erik J. Sorensen
doi:10.1038/489214a
Standfirst: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaL
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaM

細胞生物学: 眠っている皮膚幹細胞と休むことのない皮膚幹細胞
Cell biology: Dormant and restless skin stem cells p215 - 217
It has been unclear whether a uniform group of stem cells gives rise to most cells in the epidermis. A study reveals the presence of at least two stem-cell populations that have different proliferative abilities. See Article p.257
Laura De Rosa & Michele De Luca
doi:10.1038/489215a
Standfirst: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaN
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaO

環境科学: 熱帯雨林が持つ揚水ポンプ
Environmental science: The rainforest's water pump p217 - 218
An investigation of naturally occurring water recycling in rainforests finally marries the results of global climate models with observations. Alarmingly, it also suggests that deforestation can greatly reduce tropical rainfall. See Letter p.282
Luiz E. O. C. Aragao
doi:10.1038/nature11485
Standfirst: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaP
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaQ

----------------------
Articles
----------------------
細胞: 表皮維持に対する幹細胞および前駆細胞の寄与は異なる
Distinct contribution of stem and progenitor cells to epidermal maintenance p257 - 262
Whether a single group of stem cells or multiple populations contribute to the homeostasis of the interfollicular epidermis is controversial; here the authors use lineage tracing and mathematical modelling to show that the progenitors that maintain mouse epidermis are underpinned by slow-cycling stem cells that become mobilized on injury.
Guilhem Mascre, Sophie Dekoninck, Benjamin Drogat, Khalil Kass Youssef, Sylvain Brohee + et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11393
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaX
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaY

生理: タンパク質毒性ストレス条件下ではRPN-6が線虫の寿命を決める
RPN-6 determines C. elegans longevity under proteotoxic stress conditions p263 - 268
This study shows that nematodes without a germ line re-allocate resources to the soma, resulting in elevated proteasome activity, clearance of damaged proteins and increased longevity; this activity is associated with the increased expression of rpn-6 mediated by the transcription factor DAF-16.
David Vilchez, Ianessa Morantte, Zheng Liu, Peter M. Douglas, Carsten Merkwirth + et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11315
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfaZ
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfba

----------------------
Letters
----------------------
量子情報科学: アクティブフィードフォワードを使った143 kmにわたる量子テレポーテーション
Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward p269 - 273
The benchmark for a global quantum internet - quantum teleportation of independent qubits using active feed-forward over a free-space link whose attenuation corresponds to the path between a satellite and a ground station - has now been successfully achieved over a distance of 143 km, between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife.
Xiao-Song Ma, Thomas Herbst, Thomas Scheidl, Daqing Wang, Sebastian Kropatschek + et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11472
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbb
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbc

工学: 梨地加工された超疎水性表面によるライデンフロスト蒸気層の安定化
Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces p274 - 277
Textured superhydrophobic surfaces-well known for their water-repelling properties-can be used to control the boiling state of a liquid in contact with a hot surface, suppressing the unwanted nucleation of bubbles.
Ivan U. Vakarelski, Neelesh A. Patankar, Jeremy O. Marston, Derek Y. C. Chan & Sigurdur T. Thoroddsen
doi:10.1038/nature11418
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbd
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbe

化学: 有機触媒によるプロスタグランジンPGF2αの7ステップ立体制御合成
Stereocontrolled organocatalytic synthesis of prostaglandin PGF2α in seven steps p278 - 281
A concise new synthesis of the most complex of the prostaglandins-diverse hormone-like chemical messengers-should make existing prostaglandin-based drugs cheaper and also facilitate other related syntheses.
Graeme Coulthard, William Erb & Varinder K. Aggarwal
doi:10.1038/nature11411
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbf
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbg

気候: 熱帯の森林の上空を通過した大気による降水量増加の観測
Observations of increased tropical rainfall preceded by air passage over forests p282 - 285
Remote sensing and simulated atmospheric transport patterns are used to show that air passage over tropical forests produces about twice as much rain as passage over sparse vegetation; in an idealized Amazonian deforestation scenario, a reduction in seasonal precipitation of approximately 12-21% is estimated.
D. V. Spracklen, S. R. Arnold & C. M. Taylor
doi:10.1038/nature11390
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbh
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbi

海洋: 深海底を耕す
Ploughing the deep sea floor p286 - 289
Bottom trawling is a fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear scrape along the sea bed, and is shown here to disturb sediment fluxes and modify the sea floor morphology over large spatial scales.
Pere Puig, Miquel Canals, Joan B. Company, Jacobo Martin, David Amblas + et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11410
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbj
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbk

生態: 熱帯林保護区の生物多様性崩壊を防止する
Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas p290 - 294
Analysis of changes in functional groups of species and potential drivers of environmental change for protected areas across the world’s major tropical regions reveals large variation between reserves that have been effective and those experiencing an erosion of biodiversity, and shows that environmental changes immediately outside reserves are nearly as important as those inside in determining their ecological fate. William F. Laurance, D. Carolina Useche, Julio Rendeiro, Margareta Kalka, Corey J. A. Bradshaw + et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11318
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbl
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbm

社会科学: 社会的影響と政治動員における6,100万人の実験
A 61-million-person experiment in social influence and political mobilization p295 - 298
Political mobilization messages delivered to 61 million Facebook users during the 2010 US congressional elections directly influenced political self-expression, information seeking and real-world voting behaviour of millions of people and their friends, with social transmission occurring mainly between close friends and having a greater effect than the direct effect of the messages themselves.
Robert M. Bond, Christopher J. Fariss, Jason J. Jones, Adam D. I. Kramer, Cameron Marlow + et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11421
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbn
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbo

脳: 運動野-感覚野間投射路の活動から体性感覚の分散符号化が明らかになる
Activity in motor-sensory projections reveals distributed coding in somatosensation p299 - 303
Imaging of activity in long-range axons is reported in mice performing tactile object-localization with their whiskers; the feedback projection from the motor cortex to the somatosensory cortex provides information to integrate whisker movement information and touch, which are key components of object identification.
Leopoldo Petreanu, Diego A. Gutnisky, Daniel Huber, Ning-long Xu, Dan H. O'Connor + et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11321
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbp
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbq

生理: ヒト胚性幹細胞におけるプロテアソーム活性の増加はPSMD11によって制御される
Increased proteasome activity in human embryonic stem cells is regulated by PSMD11 p304 - 308
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are shown to have high 26S/30S proteasome activity owing to increased expression of the 19S proteasome subunit PSMD11; FOXO4 regulates proteasome activity in hESCs by modulating PSMD11 expression, and the high proteasome activity decreases after induced differentiation.
David Vilchez, Leah Boyer, Ianessa Morantte, Margaret Lutz, Carsten Merkwirth + et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11468
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbr
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbs

医学: 慢性リンパ球性白血病は抗原非依存的な細胞自律性シグナル伝達によって発生が促される
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is driven by antigen-independent cell-autonomous signalling p309 - 312
B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is found not to be dependent on exogenous antigens; instead, signalling may involve the binding of the BCR heavy-chain complementarity-determining region to self epitopes on the same receptor, a finding that may have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of CLL and potential therapeutic approaches.
Marcus Duhren-von Minden, Rudolf Ubelhart, Dunja Schneider, Thomas Wossning, Martina P. Bach + et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11309
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbt
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbu

細胞: コルネリア・デ・ランゲ症候群に見られるHDAC8変異は、コヒーシンのアセチル化サイクルに影響する
HDAC8 mutations in Cornelia de Lange syndrome affect the cohesin acetylation cycle p313 - 317
The deacetylase enzyme HDAC8 is identified as a crucial regulator of cohesin in humans, and loss-of-function mutations in the HDAC8 gene are found in patients with Cornelia de Lange syndrome.
Matthew A. Deardorff, Masashige Bando, Ryuichiro Nakato, Erwan Watrin, Takehiko Itoh + et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11316
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbv
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbw

医学: NIAの研究から明らかになった、アカゲザルの健康と生存にカロリー制限が及ぼす影響
Impact of caloric restriction on health and survival in rhesus monkeys from the NIA study p318 - 321
The results of a 23-year study of caloric restriction in rhesus macaques are reported; restricted caloric intake did not increase survival, but improved the metabolic profile of monkeys started at older ages and showed a trend towards delaying age-associated disease in monkeys started at a young age.
Julie A. Mattison, George S. Roth, T. Mark Beasley, Edward M. Tilmont, April M. Handy + et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11432
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbx
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfby

再生医学: ヒトES細胞由来心筋細胞は傷害心で宿主心筋と電気的に結合し不整脈を抑制する
Human ES-cell-derived cardiomyocytes electrically couple and suppress arrhythmias in injured hearts p322 - 325
A guinea-pig model of cardiac injury is used to show that human embryonic stem-cell-derived cardiomyocyte grafts can electrically integrate into the injured heart, improving mechanical function and reducing spontaneous and induced ventricular tachycardia; this is a major step towards clinical adoption of cell replacement therapies for cardiovascular diseases using human cardiomyocytes.
Yuji Shiba, Sarah Fernandes, Wei-Zhong Zhu, Dominic Filice, Veronica Muskheli + et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11317
Abstract: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfbz
Article: http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfb1

----------------------
Corrigenda
----------------------
Corrigendum: Recurrent network activity drives striatal synaptogenesis p326
Yevgenia Kozorovitskiy, Arpiar Saunders, Caroline A. Johnson, Bradford B. Lowell & Bernardo L. Sabatini
doi:10.1038/nature11372
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfb2

Corrigendum: Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity p326
Bradley J. Cardinale, J. Emmett Duffy, Andrew Gonzalez, David U. Hooper, Charles Perrings + et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11373
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfb3

----------------------
Errata
----------------------
Erratum: Non-invasive prenatal measurement of the fetal genome p326
H. Christina Fan, Wei Gu, Jianbin Wang, Yair J. Blumenfeld, Yasser Y. El-Sayed+ et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11423
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfb4

Erratum: An origin of the radio jet in M87 at the location of the central black hole p326
Kazuhiro Hada, Akihiro Doi, Motoki Kino, Hiroshi Nagai, Yoshiaki Hagiwara+ et al.
doi:10.1038/nature11425
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfb5

----------------------
Futures
----------------------
Communicant p330
The ties that bind.
John Gilbey
doi:10.1038/489330a
http://forcast.emailalert.jp/c/aamsaayKoauebfb6


┏━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┓
NATURE ┃ ネイチャー・パブリッシング・グループ
┗━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━┛

【お客様のアカウント変更・削除/メールマガジン配信停止に関して】
お客様ご自身でお手続きくださいますようお願いいたします。

・ご登録された個人情報及びメールマガジン配信サービスの変更
・全てのメールマガジンの配信停止
・ご登録解約 (解約手続き後、ご登録情報が削除されます。)


【その他ウェブサイトに関するご不明な点はヘルプページをご覧ください。】


【メールマガジンについてのご意見・ご感想】Eメール送信の際は、お受け取りのメールマガジン名をご記入ください。


**送信元アドレスは配信専用のため返信はできません。あらかじめご了承ください。