Researchers in several disciplines need to tread carefully over shared landscapes of the past.
A scandal over an academic’s use of Facebook data highlights the need for research scrutiny.
Mushroom–beef blends can tackle expanding waistlines and carbon footprints.
Researchers tracking a genetic mutation that causes an early-onset form of the disease hope to uncover new drug targets.
Experimental device is a route to printing smartphones and other electronics.
An operational forecast could help countries prepare for booms in these tiny marine creatures.
Most comprehensive study yet demonstrates that cutting people’s energy intake turns down their metabolism.
Scientists hope to learn what makes a ‘typical’ solar system from the European Space Agency’s €450-million probe.
Lawmakers are set to vote this week on legislation that includes significant funding increases for many science agencies.
Two fields in the midst of a technological revolution are struggling to reconcile their views of the past.
News & Views
Of the various temperature-sensitive ion channels identified previously, three have now been found to act in concert to detect painful heat and initiate protective reflexes.
The geometry of putative ancient shorelines on Mars suggests that these features were deformed by the growth of a massive
volcanic region — a finding that has implications for the climate, geology and hydrology of early Mars.
Software that devises effective schemes for synthetic chemistry has depended on the input of rules from researchers. A system is now reported in which an artificial-intelligence program learns the rules for itself.
Conventional origami-based techniques for structural design have a limited range of folding patterns. An approach inspired by the wings of earwigs produces structures that were not possible using previous methods.
The immune system protects the body by responding to invading organisms. But how is an attack on useful resident microbes prevented? A pathway has now been identified that allows immune cells to sense and respond to beneficial bacteria.
Some Mexican cavefish have a mutation in an insulin receptor protein that affects blood-glucose regulation. The same mutation causes diabetes and health problems in humans, but the diabetic cavefish thrive.
A clever combination of techniques has enabled, for the first time, simultaneous visualization of the 3D waves of electrical and mechanical activity that are responsible for many cases of sudden cardiac death.
A single spin in silicon is strongly coupled to a microwave-frequency photon and coherent single-spin dynamics are observed using circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Deep neural networks and Monte Carlo tree search can plan chemical syntheses by training models on a huge database of published reactions; their predicted synthetic routes cannot be distinguished from those a human chemist would design.
Analysis of rare de novo mutations in gene regulatory elements suggests that 1–3% of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders carry such mutations in elements that are active in the fetal brain.
Single-cell recordings show that CGRP-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus in mice respond to both noxious stimuli and signals of feeding satiety.
A screen of more than 1,000 drugs shows that about a quarter of the non-antibiotic drugs inhibit the growth of at least one commensal bacterial strain in vitro.
Galaxies normally have far more dark matter than normal matter, but the dynamics of objects within the ultra-diffuse galaxy NGC1052–DF2 suggest that it has a very little dark matter component.
A two-qubit quantum processor in a silicon device is demonstrated, which can perform the Deutsch–Josza algorithm and the Grover search algorithm.
Fe3Sn2 hosts massive Dirac fermions, owing to the underlying symmetry properties of the bilayer kagome lattice in the ferromagnetic state and the atomic spin–orbit coupling.
Ancient shorelines on Mars must have formed before and during the emplacement of the Tharsis volcanic province, instead of afterwards as previously assumed, suggesting that oceans on Mars formed early.
Cavefish populations of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, carry a mutation in the insulin receptor gene that renders them insulin- and starvation-resistant relative to surface populations of the same species.
Genetic similarity among late Neanderthals is predicted well by their geographical location, and although some of these Neanderthals were contemporaneous with early modern humans, their genomes show no evidence of recent gene flow from modern humans.
A new magnetoencephalography system allows high-spatiotemporal-resolution imaging of human brain function in moving subjects.
Three transient receptor potential channels (TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPM3) mediate sensitivity to acute noxious heat in mice in a redundant system; mice lacking all three show severe deficits in heat sensing, whereas double-knockout mice do not.
Using optical mapping and 3D ultrasound, the dynamics and interactions between electrical and mechanical phase singularities were analysed by simultaneously measuring the membrane potential, intracellular calcium concentration and mechanical contractions of the heart during normal rhythm and fibrillation.
Obesity-induced metabolic disease involves functional integration among several
organs via circulating factors, but little is known about crosstalk between liver
and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In obesity, VAT becomes populated
with inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). In obese
humans, there is a close correlation between adipose tissue inflammation and insulin
resistance, and in obese mice, blocking systemic or ATM
inflammation improves insulin sensitivity. However, processes
that promote pathological adipose tissue inflammation in obesity are incompletely
understood. Here we show that obesity in mice stimulates hepatocytes to synthesize
and secrete dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), which acts with plasma factor Xa to
inflame ATMs. Silencing expression of DPP4 in hepatocytes suppresses inflammation of
VAT and insulin resistance; however, a similar effect is not seen with the orally
administered DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin. Inflammation and insulin resistance are
also suppressed by silencing expression of caveolin-1 or PAR2 in ATMs; these
proteins mediate the actions of DPP4 and factor Xa, respectively. Thus, hepatocyte
DPP4 promotes VAT inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity, and targeting this
pathway may have metabolic benefits that are distinct from those observed with oral
Decreased expression of histidine phosphatase LHPP, a novel tumour suppressor, results in increased global histidine phosphorylation and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Finely tuned optogenetic control of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae enhances the biosynthesis of valuable products such as isobutanol in laboratory-scale fermenters.