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When antibiotics turn toxic p.431

Commonly prescribed drugs called fluoroquinolones cause rare, disabling side effects. Researchers are struggling to work out why.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-03267-5

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News & Views

Machine learning classifies cancer p.446

Brain tumours are often classified by visual assessment of tumour cells, yet such diagnoses can vary depending on the observer. Machine-learning methods to spot molecular patterns could improve cancer diagnosis.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02881-7

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A diamond age of masers p.447

Applications for masers — the microwave equivalent of lasers — have been hindered by their extreme operating conditions and the inability to produce continuous emissions. A diamond maser overcomes these limitations.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-03215-3

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Protein aggregates caught stalling p.449

Low-complexity protein aggregates are a hallmark of neurodegeneration. High-resolution snapshots of the structure of one such aggregate offer an unprecedented view of how these proteins disrupt crucial cellular functions.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-03000-2

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Calcium signals in planetary embryos p.451

The calcium-isotope composition of planetary bodies in the inner Solar System correlates with the masses of such objects. This finding could have implications for our understanding of how the Solar System formed.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-03144-1

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A mixed model of neuronal diversity p.452

Two groups have sequenced RNA from thousands of single cells, making the deepest ventures yet into the origins of neuronal diversity in the neocortex of the developing mammalian brain.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02539-4

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A cellular passage to the root interior p.454

Water-conducting tissues inside plant roots are surrounded by impermeable cells. This protective barrier is punctured by ‘passage cells’, which are thought to regulate nutrient uptake. How these cells form has now been revealed.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02861-x

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Articles

Developmental diversification of cortical inhibitory interneurons p.457

The embryonic emergence of interneuron subtypes in mice is revealed by integrated single-cell transcriptomic analysis along a developmental time course.

Christian Mayer, Christoph Hafemeister, Rachel C. Bandler, Robert Machold, Renata Batista Brito, Xavier Jaglin, Kathryn Allaway, Andrew Butler, Gord Fishell & Rahul Satija

doi: 10.1038/nature25999

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Placentation defects are highly prevalent in embryonic lethal mouse mutants p.463

Analysis of embryonic lethal and sub-viable mouse knockout lines reveals that ablation of many genes affects placental development, and that the occurrence of placental defects is co-associated with abnormal brain, heart and vascular system development.

Vicente Perez-Garcia, Elena Fineberg, Robert Wilson, Alexander Murray, Cecilia Icoresi Mazzeo, Catherine Tudor, Arnold Sienerth, Jacqueline K. White, Elizabeth Tuck, Edward J. Ryder + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature26002

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DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours p.469

An online approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups has been developed to help to improve current diagnostic standards.

David Capper, David T. W. Jones, Martin Sill, Volker Hovestadt, Daniel Schrimpf, Dominik Sturm, Christian Koelsche, Felix Sahm, Lukas Chavez, David E. Reuss + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature26000

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Integrative structure and functional anatomy of a nuclear pore complex p.475

The structure of the yeast nuclear pore complex, determined with sub-nanometre precision using an integrative approach that combines a wide range of data, reveals details of its architecture, transport mechanism and evolutionary origins.

Seung Joong Kim, Javier Fernandez-Martinez, Ilona Nudelman, Yi Shi, Wenzhu Zhang, Barak Raveh, Thurston Herricks, Brian D. Slaughter, Joanna A. Hogan, Paula Upla + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature26003

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Letters

Image reconstruction by domain-transform manifold learning p.487

Image reconstruction is reformulated using a data-driven, supervised machine learning framework that allows a mapping between sensor and image domains to emerge from even noisy and undersampled data, improving accuracy and reducing image artefacts.

Bo Zhu, Jeremiah Z. Liu, Stephen F. Cauley, Bruce R. Rosen & Matthew S. Rosen

doi: 10.1038/nature25988

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Continuous-wave room-temperature diamond maser p.493

The maser—the microwave progenitor of the optical laser—has been confined to relative obscurity owing to its reliance on cryogenic refrigeration and high-vacuum systems. Despite this, it has found application in deep-space communications and radio astronomy owing to its unparalleled performance as a low-noise amplifier and oscillator. The recent demonstration of a room-temperature solidstate maser that utilizes polarized electron populations within the triplet states of photo-excited pentacene molecules in a p-terphenyl host1–3 paves the way for a new class of maser. However, p-terphenyl has poor thermal and mechanical properties, and the decay rates of the triplet sublevel of pentacene mean that only pulsed maser operation has been observed in this system. Alternative materials are therefore required to achieve continuous emission: inorganic materials that contain spin defects, such as diamond4–6 and silicon carbide7, have been proposed. Here we report a continuous-wave room-temperature maser oscillator using optically pumped nitrogen–vacancy defect centres in diamond. This demonstration highlights the potential of room-temperature solid-state masers for use in a new generation of microwave devices that could find application in medicine, security, sensing and quantum technologies.

Jonathan D. Breeze, Enrico Salvadori, Juna Sathian, Neil McN. Alford & Christopher W. M. Kay

doi: 10.1038/nature25970

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Maximizing and stabilizing luminescence from halide perovskites with potassium passivation p.497

Modifying the surfaces and grain boundaries of perovskites with passivating potassium halide layers can mitigate non-radiative losses and photoinduced ion migration, increasing luminescence yields and improving charge transport and interfaces with device electrodes.

Mojtaba Abdi-Jalebi, Zahra Andaji-Garmaroudi, Stefania Cacovich, Camille Stavrakas, Bertrand Philippe, Johannes M. Richter, Mejd Alsari, Edward P. Booker, Eline M. Hutter, Andrew J. Pearson + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25989

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A lithium–oxygen battery with a long cycle life in an air-like atmosphere p.502

A lithium–oxygen battery, comprising a lithium carbonate-based protected anode, a molybdenum disulfide cathode and an ionic liquid/dimethyl sulfoxide electrolyte, operates in a simulated air atmosphere with a long cycle life of up to 700 cycles.

Mohammad Asadi, Baharak Sayahpour, Pedram Abbasi, Anh T. Ngo, Klas Karis, Jacob R. Jokisaari, Cong Liu, Badri Narayanan, Marc Gerard, Poya Yasaei + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25984

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Humans thrived in South Africa through the Toba eruption about 74,000 years ago p.511

Youngest Toba Tuff glass shards found together with evidence of human occupation at two archaeological sites from the southern coast of South Africa indicate that early modern humans thrived in this region despite the eruption of the Toba supervolcano about 74,000 years ago.

Eugene I. Smith, Zenobia Jacobs, Racheal Johnsen, Minghua Ren, Erich C. Fisher, Simen Oestmo, Jayne Wilkins, Jacob A. Harris, Panagiotis Karkanas, Shelby Fitch + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25967

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Carbon dioxide addition to coral reef waters suppresses net community calcification p.516

In situ carbon dioxide enrichment experiments show that ocean acidification poses a threat to coral reefs by reducing the saturation state of aragonite and the concentration of carbonate ions and that this impairs community calcification.

Rebecca Albright, Yuichiro Takeshita, David A. Koweek, Aaron Ninokawa, Kennedy Wolfe, Tanya Rivlin, Yana Nebuchina, Jordan Young & Ken Caldeira

doi: 10.1038/nature25968

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Dysregulation of expression correlates with rare-allele burden and fitness loss in maize p.520

A multi-tissue gene expression resource representative of the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of modern inbred maize reveals the effect of rare alleles and evolutionary history on the regulation of gene expression.

Karl A. G. Kremling, Shu-Yun Chen, Mei-Hsiu Su, Nicholas K. Lepak, M. Cinta Romay, Kelly L. Swarts, Fei Lu, Anne Lorant, Peter J. Bradbury & Edward S. Buckler

doi: 10.1038/nature25966

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A single-cell RNA-seq survey of the developmental landscape of the human prefrontal cortex p.524

Analysis of gene expression at single-cell resolution in the developing prefrontal cortex of the human embryo reveals a diversity of cell types, elucidates cell lineages and identifies signalling pathways that regulate development.

Suijuan Zhong, Shu Zhang, Xiaoying Fan, Qian Wu, Liying Yan, Ji Dong, Haofeng Zhang, Long Li, Le Sun, Na Pan + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25980

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Diffusible repression of cytokinin signalling produces endodermal symmetry and passage cells p.529

In an Arabidopsis model, repression of cytokinin in the root meristem produces a distinct population of xylem-pole endodermal cells, which resist suberization to become passage cells that enable transport across the otherwise-impermeable endodermis.

Tonni Grube Andersen, Sadaf Naseer, Robertas Ursache, Brecht Wybouw, Wouter Smet, Bert De Rybel, Joop E. M. Vermeer & Niko Geldner

doi: 10.1038/nature25976

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Carbonate-sensitive phytotransferrin controls high-affinity iron uptake in diatoms p.534

Phytotransferrin, a functional analogue of transferrin, has an obligate requirement for carbonate to bind iron, which suggests that acidification-driven declines in the concentration of seawater carbonate ions may negatively affect diatom iron acquisition.

Jeffrey B. McQuaid, Adam B. Kustka, Miroslav Oborník, Aleš Horák, John P. McCrow, Bogumil J. Karas, Hong Zheng, Theodor Kindeberg, Andreas J. Andersson, Katherine A. Barbeau + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25982

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The cis-regulatory dynamics of embryonic development at single-cell resolution p.538

An improved assay for chromatin accessibility at single-cell resolution in Drosophila melanogaster embryos enables identification of developmental-stage- and cell-lineage-specific patterns of chromatin-level transcriptional regulation.

Darren A. Cusanovich, James P. Reddington, David A. Garfield, Riza M. Daza, Delasa Aghamirzaie, Raquel Marco-Ferreres, Hannah A. Pliner, Lena Christiansen, Xiaojie Qiu, Frank J. Steemers + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25981

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