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Attack of the extreme floods p.156

As the ocean rises, researchers work to forecast where severe storms will trigger the worst flooding.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02745-0

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News & Views

A deeper look at Jupiter p.168

NASA’s Juno spacecraft has made precise measurements of the gravitational field of Jupiter. The data reveal details of the structure and dynamics of the planet’s interior.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02612-y

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Simple moral code supports cooperation p.169

The evolution of cooperation is a frequently debated topic. A study assessing scenarios in which people judge each other shows that a simple moral rule suffices to drive the evolution of cooperation.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02621-x

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A new era of rationally designed antipsychotics p.170

The ideal drugs for treating schizophrenia are postulated to selectively block the D2 dopamine receptor with optimum binding kinetics. The structure of D2 bound to an antipsychotic sheds light on how to design such drugs.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02328-z

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Transistors driven by superconductors p.172

A hybrid transistor device has been made in which a superconductor forms a seamless interface with a semiconductor. The study of such interfaces could open the way to innovative applications in electronics.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02717-4

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Mountains of diversity p.173

A large-scale analysis of bird diversity and evolution on mountains around the globe explores the relationships between elevation, species richness and the rate of formation of new species.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02062-6

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Review

Meta-analysis and the science of research synthesis p.175

Meta-analysis—the quantitative, scientific synthesis of research results—has been both revolutionary and controversial, with rapid advances and broad implementation resulting in substantial scientific advances, but not without pitfalls.

Jessica Gurevitch, Julia Koricheva, Shinichi Nakagawa & Gavin Stewart

doi: 10.1038/nature25753

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Articles

GaN/NbN epitaxial semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures p.183

Group III/nitride semiconductors have been grown epitaxially on the superconductor niobium nitride, allowing the superconductor’s macroscopic quantum effects to be combined with the semiconductors’ electronic, photonic and piezoelectric properties.

Rusen Yan, Guru Khalsa, Suresh Vishwanath, Yimo Han, John Wright, Sergei Rouvimov, D. Scott Katzer, Neeraj Nepal, Brian P. Downey, David A. Muller + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25768

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The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe p.190

Genome-wide data from 400 individuals indicate that the initial spread of the Beaker archaeological complex between Iberia and central Europe was propelled by cultural diffusion, but that its spread into Britain involved a large-scale migration that permanently replaced about ninety per cent of the ancestry in the previously resident population.

Iñigo Olalde, Selina Brace, Morten E. Allentoft, Ian Armit, Kristian Kristiansen, Thomas Booth, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Alissa Mittnik + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25738

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The genomic history of southeastern Europe p.197

Genome-wide ancient DNA data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe between 12000 and 500 ʙᴄ reveals that the region acted as a genetic crossroads before and after the arrival of farming.

Iain Mathieson, Songül Alpaslan-Roodenberg, Cosimo Posth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Iñigo Olalde, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Francesca Candilio, Olivia Cheronet + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25778

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Hierarchical neural architecture underlying thirst regulation p.204

Thirst is regulated by hierarchical neural circuits in the lamina terminalis, and these integrate the instinctive need for water with consequent drinking behaviour to maintain internal water homeostasis.

Vineet Augustine, Sertan Kutal Gokce, Sangjun Lee, Bo Wang, Thomas J. Davidson, Frank Reimann, Fiona Gribble, Karl Deisseroth, Carlos Lois & Yuki Oka

doi: 10.1038/nature25488

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Environment dominates over host genetics in shaping human gut microbiota p.210

Statistical analyses of a metagenomics-sequenced human cohort identify a relatively minor role for genetics in determining microbiome composition and show that several human phenotypes are as strongly associated with the gut microbiome as with host genetics.

Daphna Rothschild, Omer Weissbrod, Elad Barkan, Alexander Kurilshikov, Tal Korem, David Zeevi, Paul I. Costea, Anastasia Godneva, Iris N. Kalka, Noam Bar + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25973

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Letters

Clusters of cyclones encircling Jupiter’s poles p.216

Visible and infrared images obtained from above each pole of Jupiter by the Juno spacecraft reveal polygonal patterns of large cyclones; it is unknown how these cyclones evolved, or how they persist without merging.

A. Adriani, A. Mura, G. Orton, C. Hansen, F. Altieri, M. L. Moriconi, J. Rogers, G. Eichstädt, T. Momary, A. P. Ingersoll + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25491

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Measurement of Jupiter’s asymmetric gravity field p.220

Precise Doppler tracking of the Juno spacecraft in its polar orbit around Jupiter is used to determine the planet’s gravity harmonics, showing north–south asymmetry caused by atmospheric and interior flows.

L. Iess, W. M. Folkner, D. Durante, M. Parisi, Y. Kaspi, E. Galanti, T. Guillot, W. B. Hubbard, D. J. Stevenson, J. D. Anderson + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25776

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Jupiter’s atmospheric jet streams extend thousands of kilometres deep p.223

The determination of Jupiter’s odd gravitational harmonics by the Juno spacecraft reveals that the observed jet streams extend to about three thousand kilometres below the cloud tops.

Y. Kaspi, E. Galanti, W. B. Hubbard, D. J. Stevenson, S. J. Bolton, L. Iess, T. Guillot, J. Bloxham, J. E. P. Connerney, H. Cao + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25793

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A suppression of differential rotation in Jupiter’s deep interior p.227

The determination of Jupiter’s even gravitational moments by the Juno spacecraft reveals that more than three thousand kilometres below the cloud tops, differential rotation is suppressed and the gas giant’s interior rotates as a solid body.

T. Guillot, Y. Miguel, B. Militzer, W. B. Hubbard, Y. Kaspi, E. Galanti, H. Cao, R. Helled, S. M. Wahl, L. Iess + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25775

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Monolayer atomic crystal molecular superlattices p.231

Superlattices consisting of alternating monolayer atomic crystals and molecular layers allow access to stable phosphorene monolayers with competitive transistor performance and to bulk monolayer materials with tunable optoelectronic properties.

Chen Wang, Qiyuan He, Udayabagya Halim, Yuanyue Liu, Enbo Zhu, Zhaoyang Lin, Hai Xiao, Xidong Duan, Ziying Feng, Rui Cheng + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25774

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CaSiO3 perovskite in diamond indicates the recycling of oceanic crust into the lower mantle p.237

The composition of natural calcium silicate perovskite, the fourth most abundant mineral in the Earth, found within a diamond indicates an origin from oceanic crust subducted deeper than 700 kilometres into the Earth’s mantle.

F. Nestola, N. Korolev, M. Kopylova, N. Rotiroti, D. G. Pearson, M. G. Pamato, M. Alvaro, L. Peruzzo, J. J. Gurney, A. E. Moore + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25972

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Regeneration of the lung alveolus by an evolutionarily conserved epithelial progenitor p.251

An evolutionarily conserved alveolar epithelial progenitor lineage that derives from alveolar type 2 cells is responsive to Wnt signalling and acts as a major facultative progenitor in regenerating the distal lung.

William J. Zacharias, David B. Frank, Jarod A. Zepp, Michael P. Morley, Farrah A. Alkhaleel, Jun Kong, Su Zhou, Edward Cantu & Edward E. Morrisey

doi: 10.1038/nature25786

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The SMAD2/3 interactome reveals that TGFβ controls m6A mRNA methylation in pluripotency p.256

The TGFβ pathway has essential roles in embryonic development, organ homeostasis, tissue repair and disease. These diverse effects are mediated through the intracellular effectors SMAD2 and SMAD3 (hereafter SMAD2/3), whose canonical function is to control the activity of target genes by interacting with transcriptional regulators. Therefore, a complete description of the factors that interact with SMAD2/3 in a given cell type would have broad implications for many areas of cell biology. Here we describe the interactome of SMAD2/3 in human pluripotent stem cells. This analysis reveals that SMAD2/3 is involved in multiple molecular processes in addition to its role in transcription. In particular, we identify a functional interaction with the METTL3–METTL14–WTAP complex, which mediates the conversion of adenosine to N6-methyladenosine (m6A) on RNA. We show that SMAD2/3 promotes binding of the m6A methyltransferase complex to a subset of transcripts involved in early cell fate decisions. This mechanism destabilizes specific SMAD2/3 transcriptional targets, including the pluripotency factor gene NANOG, priming them for rapid downregulation upon differentiation to enable timely exit from pluripotency. Collectively, these findings reveal the mechanism by which extracellular signalling can induce rapid cellular responses through regulation of the epitranscriptome. These aspects of TGFβ signalling could have far-reaching implications in many other cell types and in diseases such as cancer.

Alessandro Bertero, Stephanie Brown, Pedro Madrigal, Anna Osnato, Daniel Ortmann, Loukia Yiangou, Juned Kadiwala, Nina C. Hubner, Igor Ruiz de los Mozos, Christoph Sadée + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25784

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Hierarchical roles of mitochondrial Papi and Zucchini in Bombyx germline piRNA biogenesis p.260

The biogenesis of piRNAs in the silkworm Bombyx is simpler than in Drosophila, with the exonucleases Trim and Nbr having no major role, and the endonuclease Zuc acting at the 3′ rather than the 5′ end.

Kazumichi M. Nishida, Kazuhiro Sakakibara, Yuka W. Iwasaki, Hiromi Yamada, Ryo Murakami, Yukiko Murota, Takeshi Kawamura, Tatsuhiko Kodama, Haruhiko Siomi & Mikiko C. Siomi

doi: 10.1038/nature25788

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The mechanism of eukaryotic CMG helicase activation p.265

In vitro experiments, using purified proteins and an assay that detects DNA unwinding, reveal the mechanism of activation of eukaryotic DNA replication.

Max E. Douglas, Ferdos Abid Ali, Alessandro Costa & John F. X. Diffley

doi: 10.1038/nature25787

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