네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Restore justice in Turkey p.145

Hundreds of academics and scientists are caught up in political crackdowns in the wake of petitions for peace.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01677-z

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News

News Features

News & Views

Wood made denser and stronger p.172

An improved method for compressing wood substantially increases its strength and stiffness, opening up the possibility of applications in engineering for which natural wood is too weak.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01371-0

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Many mutations in one clinical-trial basket p.173

When abnormality in a gene is linked to cancer and a drug targets the encoded protein, how can the patients who will respond to the drug be identified if the gene is mutated in many different ways in many different cancers?

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01312-x

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Fossil-fuel subsidies assessed p.175

Many governments subsidize the production and consumption of fossil fuels. Contrary to expectation, a study finds that removing these subsidies would only modestly reduce global carbon dioxide emissions.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01495-3

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A chirp, a roar and a whisper p.178

In 2017, gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation were detected from the merger of two stellar remnants called neutron stars. An observational analysis reveals how this radiation was released from the merger.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01570-9

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Solitons divide and conquer p.179

An experimental technique allows packets of light called solitons to maintain their shape in all three dimensions as they travel through a material. Such wave packets could find applications in optical information processing.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01470-y

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Smoking gun for a rare mutation mechanism p.180

In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick proposed that rarely formed isomers of DNA bases cause spontaneous mutations to occur during the copying of DNA. Sixty-five years later, it looks as though they were right.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00418-6

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Articles

Biomechanics of predator–prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala p.183

Analysis and modelling of locomotor characteristics of two pursuit predator–prey pairs show that hunts at lower speeds enable prey to use their maximum manoeuvring capacity and favour prey survival.

Alan M. Wilson, Tatjana Y. Hubel, Simon D. Wilshin, John C. Lowe, Maja Lorenc, Oliver P. Dewhirst, Hattie L. A. Bartlam-Brooks, Rebecca Diack, Emily Bennitt, Krystyna A. Golabek + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25479

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HER kinase inhibition in patients with HER2- and HER3-mutant cancers p.189

In a basket trial design, the efficacy of the pan-HER kinase inhibitor neratinib is tested in patients with 21 different tumour types, and responses are determined by mutation and tissue type, and are restricted to HER2-mutant cancers.

David M. Hyman, Sarina A. Piha-Paul, Helen Won, Jordi Rodon, Cristina Saura, Geoffrey I. Shapiro, Dejan Juric, David I. Quinn, Victor Moreno, Bernard Doger + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25475

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Dynamic basis for dG•dT misincorporation via tautomerization and ionization p.195

A kinetic model is proposed to predict the probability of dG•dT misincorporation across different polymerases, and provides mechanisms for sequence-dependent misincorporation.

Isaac J. Kimsey, Eric S. Szymanski, Walter J. Zahurancik, Anisha Shakya, Yi Xue, Chia-Chieh Chu, Bharathwaj Sathyamoorthy, Zucai Suo & Hashim M. Al-Hashimi

doi: 10.1038/nature25487

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Cryo-EM shows how dynactin recruits two dyneins for faster movement p.202

Cryo-electron microscopy and single-molecule studies reveal that the adaptors BICDR1 and HOOK3 recruit two dynein molecules to dynactin and thereby increase the force and speed of the dynein–dynactin microtubule motor.

Linas Urnavicius, Clinton K. Lau, Mohamed M. Elshenawy, Edgar Morales-Rios, Carina Motz, Ahmet Yildiz & Andrew P. Carter

doi: 10.1038/nature25462

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Letters

Magnetic cage and rope as the key for solar eruptions p.211

Measurements and modelling of a large confined eruption on the Sun show that its evolution is controlled by a multilayer magnetic cage containing a twisted flux rope, which can sometimes be ejective.

Tahar Amari, Aurélien Canou, Jean-Jacques Aly, Francois Delyon & Fréderic Alauzet

doi: 10.1038/nature24671

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Isomer depletion as experimental evidence of nuclear excitation by electron capture p.216

Experimental evidence is presented for isomer depletion through nuclear excitation by electron capture in molybdenum-93 nuclei.

C. J. Chiara, J. J. Carroll, M. P. Carpenter, J. P. Greene, D. J. Hartley, R. V. F. Janssens, G. J. Lane, J. C. Marsh, D. A. Matters, M. Polasik + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25483

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Experimental observation of Bethe strings p.219

Many-body two- and three-string states are realized experimentally in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg–Ising chain SrCo2V2O8 in strong longitudinal magnetic fields.

Zhe Wang, Jianda Wu, Wang Yang, Anup Kumar Bera, Dmytro Kamenskyi, A. T. M. Nazmul Islam, Shenglong Xu, Joseph Matthew Law, Bella Lake, Congjun Wu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25466

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Processing bulk natural wood into a high-performance structural material p.224

A process is described for the transformation of bulk wood into a low-cost, strong, tough, lightweight structural material, by the partial removal of lignin and hemicellulose followed by hot-pressing to densify the natural wood.

Jianwei Song, Chaoji Chen, Shuze Zhu, Mingwei Zhu, Jiaqi Dai, Upamanyu Ray, Yiju Li, Yudi Kuang, Yongfeng Li, Nelson Quispe + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25476

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Evolutionary history of the angiosperm flora of China p.234

A dated phylogeny and spatial distribution data for Chinese angiosperms show that eastern China has tended to act as a refugium for older taxa whereas western China has acted as a centre for their evolutionary diversification.

Li-Min Lu, Ling-Feng Mao, Tuo Yang, Jian-Fei Ye, Bing Liu, Hong-Lei Li, Miao Sun, Joseph T. Miller, Sarah Mathews, Hai-Hua Hu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25485

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Enhancer redundancy provides phenotypic robustness in mammalian development p.239

Gene enhancer knockout phenotypes and analysis of enhancer activity patterns show that developmental genes are regulated by multiple redundant enhancers in mouse embryos.

Marco Osterwalder, Iros Barozzi, Virginie Tissières, Yoko Fukuda-Yuzawa, Brandon J. Mannion, Sarah Y. Afzal, Elizabeth A. Lee, Yiwen Zhu, Ingrid Plajzer-Frick, Catherine S. Pickle + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25461

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High performance plasma amyloid-β biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease p.249

To facilitate clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer’s disease, which are expected to be most efficacious at the earliest and mildest stages of the disease, supportive biomarker information is necessary. The only validated methods for identifying amyloid-β deposition in the brain—the earliest pathological signature of Alzheimer’s disease—are amyloid-β positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging or measurement of amyloid-β in cerebrospinal fluid. Therefore, a minimally invasive, cost-effective blood-based biomarker is desirable. Despite much effort, to our knowledge, no study has validated the clinical utility of blood-based amyloid-β markers. Here we demonstrate the measurement of high-performance plasma amyloid-β biomarkers by immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry. The ability of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP)669–711/amyloid-β (Aβ)1–42 and Aβ1–40/Aβ1–42 ratios, and their composites, to predict individual brain amyloid-β-positive or -negative status was determined by amyloid-β-PET imaging and tested using two independent data sets: a discovery data set (Japan, n = 121) and a validation data set (Australia, n = 252 including 111 individuals diagnosed using 11C-labelled Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB)-PET and 141 using other ligands). Both data sets included cognitively normal individuals, individuals with mild cognitive impairment and individuals with Alzheimer’s disease. All test biomarkers showed high performance when predicting brain amyloid-β burden. In particular, the composite biomarker showed very high areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) in both data sets (discovery, 96.7%, n = 121 and validation, 94.1%, n = 111) with an accuracy approximately equal to 90% when using PIB-PET as a standard of truth. Furthermore, test biomarkers were correlated with amyloid-β-PET burden and levels of Aβ1–42 in cerebrospinal fluid. These results demonstrate the potential clinical utility of plasma biomarkers in predicting brain amyloid-β burden at an individual level. These plasma biomarkers also have cost–benefit and scalability advantages over current techniques, potentially enabling broader clinical access and efficient population screening.

Akinori Nakamura, Naoki Kaneko, Victor L. Villemagne, Takashi Kato, James Doecke, Vincent Doré, Chris Fowler, Qiao-Xin Li, Ralph Martins, Christopher Rowe + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25456

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