Volume 553 Issue 7687



News Features

How to see a memory p.146

Every memory leaves its own imprint in the brain, and researchers are starting to work out what one looks like.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00107-4

News & Views

Cometary spin-down p.158

The rotation rate of a comet more than halved in two months — a much greater change than has previously been observed. This suggests that the comet is in a distinct evolutionary state and might soon reorient itself.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00008-6

Neuronal plasticity in nematode worms p.159

Neuronal activity induces changes in the connectivity of a neuron called DVB in adult male nematode worms. This discovery provides an opportunity to study a fundamental process in this powerful model organism.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-09031-5

Dogma-breaking catalysis p.160

The catalysts conventionally used for industrially important hydrogenation reactions are expensive and generate toxic residues. Catalysts have now been reported that might lead to cheaper, less toxic alternatives.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-09006-6

An ode to gene edits that prevent deafness p.162

Gene editing can prevent inherited deafness in mice by disabling a mutant version of a gene that causes hearing loss. Is this a turning point on the path towards treating some types of human deafness?

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08645-z

Rule-breaking perovskites p.163

A material from the perovskite family of semiconductors emits light much more efficiently than expected. The explanation for this anomalous behaviour could lead to improvements in light-emitting technology.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-00012-w



Rotation in [C ii]-emitting gas in two galaxies at a redshift of 6.8 p.178

The earliest galaxies are thought to have emerged during the first billion years of cosmic history, initiating the ionization of the neutral hydrogen that pervaded the Universe at this time. Studying this ‘epoch of reionization’ involves looking for the spectral signatures of ancient galaxies that are, owing to the expansion of the Universe, now very distant from Earth and therefore exhibit large redshifts. However, finding these spectral fingerprints is challenging. One spectral characteristic of ancient and distant galaxies is strong hydrogen-emission lines (known as Lyman-α lines), but the neutral intergalactic medium that was present early in the epoch of reionization scatters such Lyman-α photons. Another potential spectral identifier is the line at wavelength 157.4 micrometres of the singly ionized state of carbon (the [C ii] λ = 157.74 μm line), which signifies cooling gas and is expected to have been bright in the early Universe. However, so far Lyman-α-emitting galaxies from the epoch of reionization have demonstrated much fainter [C ii] luminosities than would be expected from local scaling relations, and searches for the [C ii] line in sources without Lyman-α emission but with photometric redshifts greater than 6 (corresponding to the first billion years of the Universe) have been unsuccessful. Here we identify [C ii] λ = 157.74 μm emission from two sources that we selected as high-redshift candidates on the basis of near-infrared photometry; we confirm that these sources are two galaxies at redshifts of z = 6.8540 ± 0.0003 and z = 6.8076 ± 0.0002. Notably, the luminosity of the [C ii] line from these galaxies is higher than that found previously in star-forming galaxies with redshifts greater than 6.5. The luminous and extended [C ii] lines reveal clear velocity gradients that, if interpreted as rotation, would indicate that these galaxies have similar dynamic properties to the turbulent yet rotation-dominated disks that have been observed in Hα-emitting galaxies two billion years later, at ‘cosmic noon’.

doi: 10.1038/nature24631

Clonal analysis of lineage fate in native haematopoiesis p.212

Transposon tagging to clonally trace progenitors and stem cells provides evidence for a substantially revised roadmap for unperturbed haematopoiesis, and highlights unique properties of multipotent progenitors and haematopoietic stem cells in situ.

doi: 10.1038/nature25168

A metabolic function of FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusions in cancer p.222

Chromosomal translocations that generate in-frame oncogenic gene fusions are notable examples of the success of targeted cancer therapies1–3. We have previously described gene fusions of FGFR3- TACC3 (F3–T3) in 3% of human glioblastoma cases4. Subsequent studies have reported similar frequencies of F3–T3 in many other cancers, indicating that F3–T3 is a commonly occuring fusion across all tumour types5,6. F3–T3 fusions are potent oncogenes that confer sensitivity to FGFR inhibitors, but the downstream oncogenicsignalling pathways remain unknown2,4–6. Here we show that human tumours with F3–T3 fusions cluster within transcriptional subgroups that are characterized by the activation of mitochondrial functions. F3–T3 activates oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis and induces sensitivity to inhibitors of oxidative metabolism. Phosphorylation of the phosphopeptide PIN4 is an intermediate step in the signalling pathway of the activation of mitochondrial metabolism. The F3–T3–PIN4 axis triggers the biogenesis of peroxisomes and the synthesis of new proteins. The anabolic response converges on the PGC1α coactivator through the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which enables mitochondrial respiration and tumour growth. These data illustrate the oncogenic circuit engaged by F3–T3 and show that F3–T3- positivetumours rely on mitochondrial respiration, highlighting this pathway as a therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of tumours with F3–T3 fusions. We also provide insights into the genetic alterations that initiate the chain of metabolic responses that drive mitochondrial metabolism in cancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature25171