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Mean global ocean temperatures during the last glacial transition p.39

Noble gases trapped in ice cores are used to show that the mean global ocean temperature increased by 2.6 degrees Celsius over the last glacial transition and is closely correlated with Antarctic temperature.

Bernhard Bereiter, Sarah Shackleton, Daniel Baggenstos, Kenji Kawamura & Jeff Severinghaus

doi: 10.1038/nature25152

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Convergent evolution of bilaterian nerve cords p.45

In bilaterian animals, the final configurations of central nervous systems seem unrelated to neuroectodermal patterning systems, so it is likely that the various architectures of the ventral nerve cords evolved convergently, many times.

José M. Martín-Durán, Kevin Pang, Aina Børve, Henrike Semmler Lê, Anlaug Furu, Johanna Taylor Cannon, Ulf Jondelius & Andreas Hejnol

doi: 10.1038/nature25030

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Letters

Unexpectedly large impact of forest management and grazing on global vegetation biomass p.73

Analyses of potential and actual biomass stocks indicate that trade-offs exist between conserving carbon stocks on managed land and raising the contribution of biomass to raw material and energy supply for the mitigation of climate change.

Karl-Heinz Erb, Thomas Kastner, Christoph Plutzar, Anna Liza S. Bais, Nuno Carvalhais, Tamara Fetzel, Simone Gingrich, Helmut Haberl, Christian Lauk, Maria Niedertscheider + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25138

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Sooty mangabey genome sequence provides insight into AIDS resistance in a natural SIV host p.77

Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of immune-related genes of Cercocebus atys and Macaca mulatta identify candidate genes, such as ICAM2 and TLR4, that may explain the AIDS resistance of C. atys.

David Palesch, Steven E. Bosinger, Gregory K. Tharp, Thomas H. Vanderford, Mirko Paiardini, Ann Chahroudi, Zachary P. Johnson, Frank Kirchhoff, Beatrice H. Hahn, Robert B. Norgren + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25140

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Cyclin D–CDK4 kinase destabilizes PD-L1 via cullin 3–SPOP to control cancer immune surveillance p.91

Abundance of PD-L1, the ligand of the anti-cancer immunotherapy target PD-1, is negatively regulated by poly-ubiquitination via the cyclin D–CDK4/cullin 3–SPOP axis and PD-1 blockade treatment in mice improved survival when combined with CDK4/6 inhibitors.

Jinfang Zhang, Xia Bu, Haizhen Wang, Yasheng Zhu, Yan Geng, Naoe Taira Nihira, Yuyong Tan, Yanpeng Ci, Fei Wu, Xiangpeng Dai + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25015

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Therapeutic targeting of ependymoma as informed by oncogenic enhancer profiling p.101

Super enhancers regulate oncogenes and other molecular targets in ependymomas, and identification of these genes provides potential therapeutic targets.

Stephen C. Mack, Kristian W. Pajtler, Lukas Chavez, Konstantin Okonechnikov, Kelsey C. Bertrand, Xiuxing Wang, Serap Erkek, Alexander Federation, Anne Song, Christine Lee + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25169

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Structure of the glucagon receptor in complex with a glucagon analogue p.106

The crystal structure of the full-length glucagon receptor in complex with a glucagon analogue NNC1702 reveals how the peptide ligand interacts with its target and shows the conformational changes required for receptor activation.

Haonan Zhang, Anna Qiao, Linlin Yang, Ned Van Eps, Klaus S. Frederiksen, Dehua Yang, Antao Dai, Xiaoqing Cai, Hui Zhang, Cuiying Yi + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature25153

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